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NU117

Concepts of Stress Adaptation

QuestionAnswer
In 1956, who published research results concerning the physiological response of a biological system to a change imposed on it? Hans Selye
What is Hans Selye's revised definition of stress? "The state manifested by a specific syndrome which consists of all the nonspecifically-induced changes within a biologic system"
What is the "fight or flight" syndrome? Syndrome of physical symptoms that results from an individual's real or perceived notion that harm or danger is imminent.
What is general adaptation syndrome? The general biological reaction of the body to a stressful situation.
What are the three stages of general adaptation syndrome? 1. Alarm Reaction Stage 2. Stage of Resistance 3. Stage of Exhaustion
What is the Alarm Reaction Stage? The physiological responses of the "fight or flight" syndrome are initiated.
What is the Stage of Resistance? An individual will use the physiological responses of the first stage as a defense in the attempt to adapt to the stressor. (IF ADAPTATION OCCURS, THE THIRD STAGE IS PREVENTED OR DELAYED).
What is the Stage of Exhaustion? This happens when there is prolonged exposure to the stressor in which the body has become adjusted.
What are some examples of "Diseases of Adaptation"? Headaches, mental disorders, coronary artery disease, ulcers, colitis.
What is Stress? "A State of disequilibrium that occurs when there is a disharmony between demands occurring within an individual's internal or external environment and his or her ability to cope with those demands.
What is a Stressor? A demand from within an individual's internal or external environment that elicits a physiological and/or psychological response.
What does the concept of stress emphasize? It emphasizes the relationship between the individual and the environment.
What is a Precipitating Event? A stimulus arising from the internal or external environment and is perceived by the individual in a specific manner.
What is Cognitive Appraisal? An individual's evaluation of the personal significance of the event or occurrence. (The event "precipitates" a response on the part of the individual and the response is influenced by the individual's perception of the event).
What two things does cognitive response consist of? 1. Primary Appraisal 2. Secondary Appraisal
What are the three types of primary appraisal? 1. Irrelevant 2. Benign-positive 3. Stressful
When is an event judged irrelevant? When the outcome holds no significance for the individual.
When is an event/outcome considered benign-positive? When the outcome is perceived as producing pleasure for the individual.
What are the three stress appraisals? 1. Harm/loss 2. Threat 3. Challenge
What are Harm/Loss appraisals? They refer to damage or loss already experienced by the individual.
What are Threatening Appraisals? They are perceived as potential harms or losses.
What are Challenging appraisals? An event is perceived as challenging when the individual focuses on potential for gain or growth, rather than on risks associated with the event.
What two stress appraisals can arise together and why? Challenge and threat may occur together when an individual experiences these positive emotions along with fear or anxiety over possible risks associated with the challenging event.
When does a Secondary Appraisal arise? When stress is produced in response to harm/loss, threat, or challenge.
What is Secondary Appraisal? It is an assessment of skills, resources, and knowledge that the person possesses to deal with the situation.
What does an individual evaluate during Secondary Appraisal? 1. Which coping strategies are available to them 2. Will the option they choose be effective in that sitiation 3. Do they have the ability to use the strategy in an effective manner
What determines the quality of an individual's adaptation response to stress? The interaction between the primary appraisal of the event that has occurred and the secondary appraisal of available coping strategies.
List "Predisposing Factors" Genetic influences, past experiences, and existing conditions.
List the 7 Adaptive Coping Strategies 1. Awareness 2. Relaxation 3. Meditation 4. Interpersonal Communication with Caring Other 5. Problem Solving 6. Pets 7. Music
When is a behavior considered Maladaptive? When it disrupts the integrity of the individual or results in persistent disequilibrium.
True or False: When an individual experiences a high level of life change events, he or she becomes susceptible to physical or psychological illness. True
Created by: nglidden