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Genki I/Nakama DiffG

Genki I/Nakama Differential (grammar and a little extra vocab)

おやすみ(なさい) Good night.
いってきます I'll go and come back
いってらっしゃい Please go and come back.
ただいま I'm home.
おかえり(なさい) Welcome home.
ごちそうさま(でした) Thank you for the meal. (after eating)
いってきます and いってらっしゃい person leaving says いってきます, then family member(s) seeing them off reply (or replies) いってらっしゃい.
ただいま and おかえり(なさい) person arriving says ただいま, then family member(s) reply (or replies) おかえり(なさい)
giving a telephone number の between local exchange code and last four digits
Added to statement when the speaker wants to assure the speaker of what has been said. Authoritative decree.
(を)どうぞ "Used when an offer is made in respect to item X." Also, "when a person is waiting for you to come forward with item X."
(を)どうぞ, examples For example, when about to hand a menu to a customer. Example of second type is when a telephone operator is waiting for you to give them your name.
行く vs. 来る 行く is movement in a direction away from the speaker. 来る is movement toward the place where the speaker is.
げんけん space inside the entrance of a home where people remove their shoes
referring to yourself as a teacher "describing oneself as [先生] may sound slightly arrogant, because it actually means "honorable master. If you (or a family member) is a teacher is a teacher, and if you want to be really modest, you can use the word きょうし instead."
titles for children "Children are referred to as ちゃん (and boys in particular as くん) rather than さん"
の前 often used in the sense of across the street or opposite X
のむかい also used for across
のうら If something is behind X, or farther away from a street and cannot be seen due to intervening X.
duration, particles no particle required for duration. ぐらい is optional.
えっ incredulous "what?"
あっ suddenly noticed or remembered something
えっ and あっ pronunciation small っ indicates that these words are very short when pronounced
XはYとZのあいだです。 X is between Y and Z.
では a substitute for じゃ
では, more common usage in writing rather than speaking
では, pronunciation dewa
busy いそがしい for people. にぎやか(な) in some other instances (aside from its meaning as lively).
busy, apparent but not actual exception omission of the subject.
busy, apparent but not actual exception, example 日曜日はいそがしいです。 =日曜日は(私は)いそがしいです。
~てもいいです verbal. て is from て form. Means "you may do. . ." Describes an activity that is permitted.
~てもいいです, asking for permission Turn it into a question sentence.
~てもいいです, giving permission in response to a request for it Can either repeat whole て form plus もいいです construction, or just say いいです.
~てはいけません Means "you must not do . . .," a strong prohibition statement, as in rules and regulations.
~てはいけません, denying permission usable, but harsh sounding unless you are in a place of authority.
て form connecting verbs, other usage connecting verbs "loosely"
て form connecting verbs, other usage, example 1 describes the manner in which the action described by the second verb is performed: バスにのって、かいしゃに行きます。
て form connecting verbs, other usage, example 2 describes the situation for which the apology is made: きょうかしょをわすれて、すみません。
~から A sentence that ends with から (because) explains the reason or the cause of a situation, a proposal, and so forth.
~から, format (situation)。 (explanation)から。
~ましょうか, other usage also used in the sense of "let me do . . .," in offering assistance.
~ましょうか, other usage, example 1 (私が)やりましょうか。 "I'll do it." Said to someone having a hard time opening the lid of a bottle.
~ましょうか, other usage, example 2 にもつをもちましょうか。 "Shall I carry your bag?" Said to someone carrying a heavy bag.
どうも normally used with ありがとう, as どうもありがとう, or with すみません, as どうもすみません. Can be used alone as an abbreviation for either. When wanting to show gratitude or regret, can use it instead of a whole sentence.
どうも, additional usages どうも functions in many ways, depending on the situation. Some people use it as "hello" or "good-bye."
どうもありがとう Thank you very much.
どうもすみません I am very sorry/Thank you very much.
お prefix お simply adds smoothness and nuance of social refinement, without changing the meaning of the words.
て-form + いる, 行く and 来る belong to the group of verbs that form a resultant state
て-form for joining sentences, nouns で after noun
て-form for joining sentences, nouns, example バスで
しる/わかる "If you don't know the answer to a question but should have thought about it, you should say わかりません instead of しりません。 しりません would imply that your ignorance on that matter is none of the inquirer's business. So, it would sound rude."
short forms plain verbs and い-adjectives, noun and な adjective だ forms, あない/わない and ない negative form verbs, ない and じゃない form adjectives. しない, こない。 ない for ある
long forms to keep a proper distance
short form questions don't end with question particle (not universally true, though?)
quoting someone's utterances short form + といっていました
quoting someone's utterances, example スーさんは、明日しけんがあるといっていました。
quoting someone's thoughts short form + と思います
quoting someone's thoughts and utterances と is a quotation particle, which does the job of both the English word "that" in indirect quotation and of quotation marks (" ") in direct quotation.
quoting someone's thoughts, example (私は)たけしさんはメアリーさんが好きだとおもいます。
requesting that someone refrains from doing something negative verbal short form + で下さい. "Please don't . . ."
requesting that someone refrains from doing something, form ~ないでくさい
requesting that someone refrains from doing something, example ここでしゃしんをとらないで下さい。
下手 へた
上手 じょうず
上手の上 じょう
は, when likely to be used when subject of sentence has already been mentioned
が, when to use When both people in the conversation know that someone did something, but only one knows who, and that person is saying who did it.
が, when to use, further notes Presents the subject of a sentence in a way such that the noun will "fill in the blank on the information sheet." This blank is a question word. Both the question word and the noun in the answer to the question followed by が.
何か, something vs. anything anything in question, something in positive statement
~する Most irregular verbs are compounds of nouns and the verb する. If you have learned an irregular verb, therefore, you have also learned a noun. Some of these nouns can be used as the "object" of the verb する.
~する, example べんきょうする is the verb, べんきょう is the noun, and an example sentence: 日本語のべんきょうはたのしいです。
~する, example 私は日本語のべんきょうをしました。
~する, が constructions like が好きです。 can use either noun from the irregular verb or the verb
~する, が constructions like が好きです, たとえば 日本語のべんきょうが好きです。/日本語をべんきょうするのが好きです。
Tense of reported utterance Same tense as original utterer used, not changed to past tense if not past tense.
~から tense politeness "The long form before から is more polite, and is frequently found in request and suggestion sentences."
Comparisons between two items, additional ways to ask どっちのほう can be used instead of どちらのほう. It is more colloquial. どちら and どっち can be used in place of どちらのほう and どっちのほう.
いちばん, another way to view it a comparison among three or more items.
いちばん, another way to view it, example ロシアとフランスと日本の中で、どこが一番さむいですか。
いちばん, question word note 1 どちら and どっち not used. Regular question words are used. ("Regular" is a bit of a misnomer given that the sentence construction has a lot to do with why those question words are used, but it will serve.)
いちばん, question word note 2 どれ tends to be used when the sentence includes a list of items, and 何 tends to be used "when a group is referred to collectively."
つもりだ comes after short form verbs when someone wants to say what they plan to do, plan to not do, or do not plan to do. (Positive short form for the first and negative short form for the second two)
つもりだ, example 1 (私は)週末にたけしさんとテニスをするつもりです。
つもりだ, example 2 山下先生はあした大学に来ないつもりです。
つもりだ, example 3 おてらを見に行くつもりでしたが、天気がよくなかったから、行きませんでした。
adjective or noun + なる, note on indication of type of change Unclear by default if change is absolute or relative. To make a sentence have a clear relative meaning, use the comparison structure with なる. Adjective + なる comes at the end, after the comparative clause(s).
Can be used with "nouns that describe the means of transportation and the instruments you use."
で, example 1 はしでごはんを食べます。
で, example 2 日本語で話しましょう。
で, example 3 バスでえきまで行きました。
で, example 4 テレビでえいがを見ました。
が and けど, use at the end of a sentence They can sometimes be used in this way so that what we have just said is treated "as a given, common ground to build upon. These words often indicate the speaker's intention to give [his or] her partner a chance to react and speak up.”
が and けど, use at the end of a sentence, social context "By relegating the right to speak to one's partner, they also contribute to the politeness of one's utterance."
が and けど, use at the end of a sentence, example Travel agent lays out information on two flights, one morning and one afternoon, but does not ask obvious question, instead finishing sentence with が: "午前と午後のびんがありますが..."
~たい, another way to talk about people's wishes uses a たい form and といっていました (と言っていました。) to QUOTE someone's wishes and only to QUOTE them.
だけ can be added to numbers and indicates having "just that many items." Also, it "implies you have something up to the amount needed, but not more than that."
だけ, social context it "suggests that you can live with that few, though the number admittedly could have been higher."
に, additional usage "You can use [it] to indicate the occasion on which you do something."
に, additional usage, example ばんごはんにサラダをたべました。
に, additional usage 2 it "can . . . indicate the role you want something to play."
に, additional usage 2, example おみやげにえはがきをかいました。I bought a postcard as a souvenir.
ゆめ, types and verb usage Sleep dream (みる) or dreams more in the sense of something "you wish would come true" (もっている/持っている or ある)
には makes a sentence "about the places." Similar to が and は differences, but for に and には.
んです and どうして why
んです and どうした what happened
んです, addition usage It can be used to ". . . provide an addition comment on what has just been said."
んです, addition usage, example A: とてもいいきょかしょですね。B: ええ。私の大学の先生が書いたんです。
んです, written language note のです is more common in written language. It is "stylistically more formal."
~すぎる "Helping verb" that follows "verb stems" and "means 'too much,' or 'to excess.' . . . conjugates as a . . . る-verb"
~すぎる, example 1 はやく起きすぎました。
~すぎる, example 2 食べすぎてはいけません。
~すぎる, another use can also follow い- and な- adjective bases.
~すぎる, another use, example 1 (高い) この本は高すぎます。
~すぎる, another use, example 2 (しずかな) このまちはしずかすぎます。
~すぎる, social context "Use . . . when something is beyond normal or proper, suggesting that you do not welcome it." Further, “. . . しんせつすぎます (too kind) for example is not a straightforward compliment.”
~すぎる, social context, alternative “Use modifiers like とても and すごく if you simply want to say that something is in a high degree."
~ほうがいいです "it is better (for you) to do . . ." comes at the end of a sentence that can be used to give advice.
~ほうがいいです, more specific explanation "When" using it to "suggest an activity", "you are giving a very specific piece of advice; namely, that it is advisable to do it, and if one does not follow the advice, there is a danger or a problem."
~ほうがいいです, conjugation Verb tense (for verb coming before the expression) for the affirmative tense is in past plain verb form, negative in present plain.
ので versus から ので sounds slightly more formal than から
ので semantics not clearly true that you can end a sentence with ので. Look into it eventually.
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません Used to indicate "that it is necessary to do something," or in other words, something that "must" be done. Made from ない, but with い replaced with the rest of the expression.
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません, choosing which one なきゃ is colloquial and more often found in spoken language. なければ is more formal and more often seen in written language.
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません, example 1 しけんがあるから、 べんきょうしなければいけません/なきゃいけません。
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません, explanation なければ and なきゃ mean "if you do not do . . ." and いけません roughly means "you cannot go"; The whole thing therefore means literally "you cannot go not doing . . . " The double negative makes it a positive.
食べる, ~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません 食べなければいけません/食べきゃいけません
言う, ~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません 言わなければいけません/言わきゃいけません
する, ~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません しなければいけません/しきゃいけません
くる, ~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません こなければいけません/こきゃいけません
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません, more on tenses いけませんでした to say you had to. Can also change to なきゃいけない in casual speech and なければいけない in written language.
~なければいけません/~なきゃいけません, additional alternatives なくちゃいけません, なくてはいけません, and ないといけません. Also, for original two forms, can substitute なりません for いけません: なければなりません and なきゃなりません. In casual speech, can leave out いけません and end like: やべなきゃ。/たべなくちゃ。/やべないと。
でしょう, another casual use alone with rising questioning intonation and often shorter form でしょ to check if your conversation partner agrees that you have the correct understanding about what you have just said.
でしょう, another casual use, example ジョン、 中国語が分かるでしょう? これ、 よんで。 John, you understand Chinese, right? Can you read this for me?
Created by: ncommons



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