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Midterm Nutrition

Nutrition HO-15 Midterm Review

QuestionAnswer
Four leading causes of death related to nutrition heart disease stroke, cancer and diabetes
Energy yielding nutrients are fat carbohydrate and protein
Sham treatment involving a harmless medication placebo
A study that assesses correlations between diet and disease across populations epidemiological
A study involving one individual in a clinical setting case study
A study which involves experimental manipulation of individuals interventional
Gold standard study design double blinded placebo controlled interventional trial
A food with a high amount of micronutrients phytochemicals and fiber with a low number of calories nutrient dense
Five characteristic of a nutritious diet variety balance moderation calorie control and adequacy
Nutrients which are organic vitamins fat carbohydrate and protein
An imbalance of nutrients malnutrition
Nutrients that are necessary and cannot be made by the body essential
A food which is unprocessed and unrefined and remains in it's natural form whole food
Calories per gram of fat 9 calories/g
Calories per gram of carbohydrate 4 calories/g
Calories per gram of protein 4 calories/g
definition of low-fat less than 3 grams per serving
definition of high -n 20% of the daily value
definition of high in fiber 5 grams or more per serving
definition of good source of fiber 2.5 grams - 4.9 grams per serving
recommended intake % for carbohydrates 45-65%
recommended intake % for fats 20-35%
recommended intake % for protein (Dietary Guidelines) 10-35%
recommended intake % for protein for most Americans 10-15%
bioactive plant chemical compound with health benefits phytochemical
protects lipids, DNA and other structures in the body by quenching free radicals antioxidant
recommended intake based on solid experimental evidence RDA
a plant food that contains seeds of that plant fruit
The balance of calories remaining in a person's "energy allowance" after consuming sufficient nutrient-dense forms of foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day. discretionary calories
this group may benefit from drinking 1-2 alcoholic drinks daily men with heart disease over age 60
the most important organ in digestion and absorption small intestines
bile is made in this organ liver
this organ reabsorbs water and minerals colon
provides bulk and increases pressure on the colon fiber
bile is stored in this organ gallbladder
the breakdown of food into individual nutrients digestion
this organ uncoils (denatures) protein stomach
carbohydrates are initially stored in what two organs liver and muscle
fat is stored where adipose cells (fat cells)
carbohydrates are stored as glycogen
once glycogen stores are filled, carbohydrates are stored as fat in adipose cells
the cells in the stomach secrete what to protect the stomach lining mucus
eating small meals, decreasing fiber & wearing loose clothing are recommendations for what condition heartburn
carbohydrate digestion begins where mouth
alcohol is utilized as energy and food consumed with alcohol is stored as fat, which creates beer belly
the uptake of nutrients from the small intestines into the bloodstream absorption
three monosaccharides fructose, glucose and galactose
three disaccharides sucrose, maltose and lactose
fructose + glucose sucrose
glucose + galactose lactose
glucose + glucose maltose
lactose breaks down into galactose + glucose
maltose breaks down into glucose + glucose
table sugar is sucrose
fruit sugar is fructose
milk sugar is lactose
sucrose breaks down into fructose + glucose
three complex carbohydrates starch, fiber, glycogen
storage form of carbohydrates in the body glycogen
complex carbohydrate that provides us with energy starch
complex carbohydrate that passes through undigested fiber
when the starch from corn is consumed the end result in the bloodstream is glucose
the recommended intake for carbohydrates as a % of total calories is 45-65%
the AHA recommended intake for added sugar as a % of total calories is 0-5%
which type of carbohydrates should be minimized in the diet refined
the AHA maximum amount of added sugar (in grams) per day 25-35 grams
which type of fiber decreases risk of heart disease and diabetes soluble
which type of fiber alleviates constipation and lower risk of diverticulosis insoluble
which type of fiber slows the absorption of glucose soluble
which type of fiber adds bulk to stools insoluble
when a grain is refined, what is removed husk, bran and germ
unbleached, refined wheat flour is shown on a label as wheat flour
every absorbable carbohydrate eventually ends up as what in the bloodstream glucose
when blood sugar drops, what is released from the pancreas glucagon
when blood sugar rises, what is released from the pancreas insulin
insulin lowers blood glucose by assisting glucose into cells
glucagon acts on what organ liver
what is the action of glucagon breaks down glycogen to glucose
what impact does glucagon have on blood glucose raises blood glucose
what impact does insulin have on blood glucose lowers blood glucose
what is the chemical composition of honey fructose, glucose and sucrose
is honey an added sugar? yes
how does the glycemic load differ from glycemic index takes into account the weight of the food
evaporated cane juice is healthier than table sugar no, it's chemically the same
which type of diabetes is an autoimmune disease type 1
which type of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance type 2
when an individual has diabetes is the blood sugar high or low high
increased fat storage, insulin resistance, high uric acid, high cholesterol are associated with high intakes of fructose
three categories of lipids fats, sterols and phospholipidsthree categories of lipids
three fatty acids attached to a glycerol triglyceride
a fat that is solid at room temperature saturated fat
fat with one point of unsaturation (double bond) monounsaturated fat
type of fat that is liquid at room temperature unsaturated fat
sterol that is essential to membrane structure cholesterol
most digestion and absorption of fats takes place in the small intestines
an emulsifier that assists in the digestion and absorption of fats bile
after absorption, larger lipids are converted to TG, packaged with protein as chylomicrons
cholesterol can become trapped by what and pass unabsorbed fiber
LDL and HDL are not actually cholesterol, they are lipoproteins
the "good" cholesterol HDL
the "bad" cholesterol LDL
A low HDL and high LDL increase or decrease heart disease risk increase
recommended % intake of total fat 20-35%
American Heart Association recommendation for saturated fat < 7%
The Dietary Guidelines suggest cholesterol intake should be? no limit (new in 2015)
what two foods raise LDL and total cholesterol the most trans fat and saturated fat
How many calories per gram of fat? 9 calories/gram
two essential fatty acids linoleic (omega-6) and linolenic (omega-3)
two omega three fatty acids EPA and DHA
these fatty acids help decrease the risk of heart disease omega-3 fatty acids
manufacturers hydrogenate vegetable oils to increase shelf life
when you see hydrogenated vegetable oil on a label, you know there are trans fats in the product
the body's best source of energy is fat
what makes the amino acid on a protein unique side chain
proteins are a strand of amino acids
once a protein strand has folded, it becomes functional
what does protein contain that carbs and fat do not? nitrogen
when proteins are uncoiled, they are denatured
protein digestion starts in what organ stomach
most protein digestion and absorption occur where small intestines
before being absorbed, proteins are broken down into amino acids
list 5 roles of proteins enzymes, hormones, precursors, antibodies, fluid balance, buffer, clotting
using protein for energy and excreting the nitrogen is referred to as wasting
moist heat does what to digestibility? improves it
which source of protein is the most easily digested animal
how many grams per kilogram of protein are recommended 0.8g/kg
what % of total calories should come from protein 10-35%
how much protein do most Americans need (%) 10-15%
PEM that develops slowly, severe wasting, lack or protein and calories marasmus
PEM with acute onset at 1-3 yrs, swollen belly, protein deficient kwashiorkor
combining two protein contain foods to make a complete protein is known as mutual supplementation
vitamin that vegans lack in their diet Vitamin B12
when protein is utilized for energy, how many calories are produced 4 calories/gram
what compounds will denature proteins acids, bases, heat, heavy metals
Created by: tainner
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