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Chapeters 8&9 A&P

Lincoln tech. LPN A&P test review

How is bone growth affected by sex hormones? inhibits (doesn't allow)further longitudinal growth It also causes the EPIPHYSEAL DISC(growth plate) to fuse
How is bone growth affected by growth hormones? help make a child grow taller
How is bone growth affected by hormones? The EPIPHYSEAL DISC(growth plate)is sensitive to its effects It have a great role in the growth of this growth plate.
What is the epiphyseal disc? a band of hyaline cartilage at ends of long bones Longitudinal bone growth occurs here
What are the functions of the bone? support, protect, provide movement,store calcium, exchange blood, store bone marrow, and forms red and white blood cells
What is a compact bone? dense/hard bone tissue found primarily(mostly) in the shaft of the long bone and the outer surfaces of bones
What is a spongy bone? Is also know as a cancellous bone is less dense with a Swiss cheese like appearance Its located primarily(mostly) at the end of a long bone and in the center of other bones
What is a Harversian system or ostens? are microscopic units of COMPACT BONE It consist of mature OSTEOCYTES arranged in concentric(having a common center)circles around large blood vessels
What are the two types of ossification? Intramembranous Ossification and Endochondral ossification
What are the two types of bone? Compact and Spongy bone
What is ossification? Natural process of bone formation.
What is Intramembranous Ossification? Replacement of connective tissue membranes within bones (Ex:flat bone)
What is Endochondral ossification? Replacement of Cartilage within the fetal skeleton. It turns cartilage into bone tissue. (ex: long bone, irregular bone,short bones.)
What are the parts of a long bone? Diaphysis, epiphysis, epiphyseal disc, Medullary cavity, Periosteum, and Endosteum.
What is the Shaft of a long bone? Diaphysis
what is the enlarged end of a long bone? epiphysis
What is growth Plate? Epiphyseal disc
what is band is a band of hyaline cartilage at ends of long bones? Epiphyseal disc
Longitudinal bone growth occurs here. Epiphyseal disc
The tough outer connective tissue covering the diaphysis of a long bone. Periosteum
Inside of the medullary cavity is lined with this type of conective tissue. Endosteum
What is the hollow center of the diaphysis? Medullary cavity
At Infancy this is filled with red bone marrow but as adults its filled with yellow bone marrow and stores fat. Medullary cavity
Lined with connective tissue called Endosteum. Medullary cavity
points of attachment for muscles. Periosteum
Anchored firmly to the outside of the bone on all surfaces except the articular cartilage Periosteum
Protects the bone Periosteum
This is the tough, fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outside of the disphysis. Periosteum
articulates of meets with second bone at a joint epiphysis
Consist of a thin layer of compacted bone overlaying spongy bone epiphysis
Covered by cartilage epiphysis
Composed primarily of compacted bone and therefor provides considerable strength Diaphysis
Bone cells Osteoblast
containing calcium, other minerals, and protein fibers. Osteoblast
Matures into osteocytes that sit within the hard bones Matrix and maintains the bone. Osteoblast
Osseous tissue Bones
What is osteoclast? Eroding cavity of this cell remodels and expands the medullary cavity.
Responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclast
Bone-building cells Osteoblast
What is a tendon made out of? Fascia
Layers of dense connective tissue Fascia
osteology study of bones
Mostly found in infants red bone marrow
Adults have it only in there sternum, ribs, body of the veterbrae, proximal end of the long bone and crest of the illium Red bone marrow
osteocyte mature bone cells
Bony plate found in spongy bone trabeulae
Articular cartilage found on the outer surface of the epiphysis
Different parts of the Sternum manubrium,body,and xiphoid process
The part of the sternum closest to the collarbone manubrium
The largest part of the sternum body
Lower tip of the sternum xiphoid process
Suprasternal notch depression on the superior border of the manubrium
Manubrosternal joint located between the manubrium and the body of the breast bone
Where is the ulna located forearm bone (smaller bone)
Where is the humerous located Arm bone.. its connected to your shoulder bone
Clavile collarbone
Scapula Shoulder blade
Where is the tibia located lower leg bone (bigger bone)(distal(below) to the knee)
phalanges Finger bones (14)
Where Is the femur located Thigh bone
Metacarpals Palm bones (5)
Carpals Wrist bone
Metatarsals Instep of foot (not the toes) (5)
Where is the radius located Forearm bone (bigger bone)
Calcaneus foots heal bone
Where is the cuboid located in the foot
Appendicular skeleton upper and lower limbs,pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle
Axial skeleton Cranium, rib cage,vertebral column
What are the different sections of the vertebral column (vertebrae) cevical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
The two bones located in the cevical part of the vertebrae that allow the head to move atlas and atix
The tail of the vertebrae thats connected to the sacrum coccyx
Where blood is formed bone marrow
Dressions in the bone Foramen, fossa, meatus, sinus
foramen passway of nerves and blood vessels; opening through a bone
Fossa depression or groove
Meatus tunnel; tubelike passageway
sinus a cavity or hollow space
Parietal bone the to side bones of the head
temporal bone close to the side of the ear; Zygomatic process, styoild process,external aduitory meatus, and mastoid process make up this
occipital bone located at the back and base of the head;
Foramen magnum the large hole in the occipital bone
Fascia layers Epimysium, perimysium, endomysium
Cheek bones zygomatic process
external aduitory meatus forms the opening of the ear
styoild process point of attachment of several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx; sharp projection
mastoid process Point of attachment for neck muscles
Frontal bone crown of head and upper part of bony structure of the eye
sphenoid bone butterfly-shaped bone that forms parts of the floor and side of the cranium
ethmoid bone is an irregularly shaped bone located between the eyes orbits ; right where the nose starts
mandible lower jaw bone
temporomandibular joint tmj
t in tmj stands for temporal
m in tmj stands for mandible
maxilla upper jaw bone
palatine bone posterior part of the hard palate (back of the roof of mouth)
zygomatic bone cheek bone
sinuses air-filled cavities of several parts of the cranium
scoliosis lateral curvature (curve) in back
kyphosis hunch back; exaggerated thoracic curvature (curve)
lordosis exaggerated lumbar curvature (curve) called swayed back
True ribs First seven (7) ribs, attach directly to the sternum
False ribs next five (5) ribs, do not connect to the sternum directly
floating ribs last two (2) ribs,do not attach at all; looks like they are floating
Pectoral girdle contains the clavicle and scapula
fontanels babys soft spot; also provides movement
Athophy waste away
type of athophy Disuse,Denervation,senile
disuse athophy not using extremities
denervation athrophy nerves are severed
Senile athrophy normal aging prosses
hypertrophy Growth in response to over use
Flexion bend hand, leg or arm inward
Extension bend leg or arm outward ; to straighten hand
eversion turning foot outward away from other foot
inversion turning sole of foot inward closer to other foot
addution adding to the body or mid-line, bring leg towards body midline
abduction to take away from body or mid-line; move leg side ways
supination turning palm upward so the palm is visible
pronation palm is face downward ; turn palm downward so back hand is visible
doriflexion bend foot upward towards the leg
plantor flextion toe dancing; bend foot down
Hyperextention overextending the hand upward
I.n.o stands for In take and out take
frontails forehead muscles; raises eyebrows
external and internal Intercostals thoracic cavity muscles; helps breathing
deltoid shoulder muscles; abducts,extends, and rotates arm
Platysma lower facial muscles; opens mouth wide
orbicularis oculi eye muscle; closes eye; allows you to wink blink and squint
tibialis anterior foot muscles; doriflexes foot
Two aspects of muscle contracton Eletrical and contractile
Ankle and foot muscles Tibialis anterior and soleus
Thigh and leg muscles Gluteus maxiums,tensor faciae latae, and quadriceps femoris
cardiac muscle Involuntary, striated, and found in heart
smooth muscles involuntary, viseral muscle,and nonstriated
skeletal muscle voluntary,striated,and attached to bone
contracture abnormal fibrous formation in the muscle that freezes in flexed posistion
myosin contracted protein, actins contain binding sites for this, thick_____ filaments sit between the thin filament, ______heads
sarcomere found inside the myofibrils, from z-line to z-line
thin filament actin and troponin
thick filaments myosin
contracted proteins myosin and actin
masseter closes and retrats jaw
tonus muscle tone, to normal continuous state of partical muscles contractions
zygomaticus cheekbone muscle; smiling
belly refers to the enlarged fleshy body of the muscle between the slender points of attachment
recruitment the more motor units activated the greater the force of the contraction
motor unit the nerve and innervated muscles fibers
neck muscles sternocleidomastoid
facial muscles frontalis, obricularies,levator palpebrae superoris, orbicularis oris buccinator, zygomaticus, platysma
muscles of the abdominal wall external and internal obilque; transverse and rectus abdominis
Diaphragm major breathing muscle
musles of the shoulders latissimus dorsi,pectoralis major,deltoid
muscles of the forearm biceps and triceps brachii
biceps brachii bring in arm at the elbow joint
triceps brachii straighten arm at the elbow
levator palpebrae superoris eye muscle; opens eye lids
soleus plantar flextion of foot
Neck muscle; turns head sternocleidomastoid
Quadriceps femorius vastus: lateralis vastus, intermedius vastus,medialis vastus rectus: femoris rectus
tensor fasciae latae thigh muscle; adducts and rotates thigh
orbicularis oris buccinator lips muscle ; close mouth, purses lips, kissing
latissimus dorsi swimmer muscle; adducts and rotates the arm out backward
pectoralis major adduct and rotates arm across chest flex and extends arm
temporalis closes and retracts jaw
Created by: jenniferlynnen