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med-surgical cardio

chapter 18

What does the heart consist of? endocardium myocardium epicardium
What surrounds the heart? pericardium
What does the pericardium space contain? fluid of 5-20ml
What does the pericardium provide? barrier to infection, prevents displacement of the heart, pain and other receptors that reflex the changes in heart rate and blood pressure
What is the pericardium? double-membranous sac
How many chambers are in the heart? four chambers; right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle
What does it make up? two coordinated pumps for left and right
What is the right side of the heart for? low-pressure system
What is the left side of the heart for? high-pressure system
What does the right atrium and right ventricle receive and where does it go? deoxygenated blood; goes to the lungs
What does the left atrium and left ventricle receive and where does it go? oxygenated blood; goes through the systemic circulation
What separates the right and left sides septum
What directs the flow of blood through the heart chambers? cardiac valves
How does blood enter the right atrium? superior and inferior vena cava
Where does the blood go after superior and inferior vena cava? right atrium
When the blood leaves the right atrium where does it go and where does it circulate to? right ventricle and circulates to the lungs
Once blood circulates in the lungs, what is exchanged? carbon dioxide
What does the other arteries in the body carry? oxygenated blood
Where does the left atrium receive blood? pulmonary veins
What does other veins carry in the blood? carbon dioxide
Where does the left ventricle ejects from carrying blood from the body? aortic valve
What supplies the cardiac muscle with blood? coronary arteries
What does the left coronary artery divide and cicumflex? anterior descending; providing blood for the left side
What does the right coronary arteries provides? blood for the right atrium, right ventricle, posterior wall of left ventricle
Where is the heart located? within the mediastinum, tilted forward to the left side of the chest
Where can the point of maximal (PMI) impulse be found? fifth and sixth ribs on the dividing of the left clavicle in half
How is the heart pumping action sparked? special pacemaker cells and conduction fibers
Where is the conduction pathway located? myocardium
Where is the SA node located? right atrium
What is another name for SA node and why> pacemaker, because its the initiates the electrical impulses
Where is the AV node located? bottom of right atrium
What does it relay and where does it relay to? impulses from SA node, bundle of his, and to the purkinje fibers
What is influence by autonomic nervous system? heart rate and rhythm
What are the factors affecting the ANS? speed up or slow down the heart rate
What does the cardiac cycle consist of? contractions of the muscle and relaxation of the muscle
What is the amount of cardiac output and the amount of blood returning? depends on the heart rate; 5liters
What is ejection fraction and what is the percentage? percentage of blood ejected out from the heart during systole
What happens as ejection fraction decreases? heart failure; tissue perfusion diminishes
What can cause pulmonary edema? too much blood and the increased pressure in the pulmonary vessels
What does stroke volume mean? the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during contraction
What is cardiac output? stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate
What are the three types of blood vessels that make up the vascular system? arteries, veins, and capillaries
What is the function of the blood vessels? conduct the blood from the body tissues to the heart and from the heart back to the tissues
Created by: shvn86