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Challenge A

Grammar #14-33

14 Nouns Nouns have gender, number, case, and declension.
15 Gender There are three genders in Latin: masculine, feminine, neuter.
16 Masculine All nouns meaning individual male persons are masculine.
17 Feminine All nouns meaning individual female persons are feminine.
18 Gender of other nouns The gender of other nouns must be learned from their declension or from the vocabularies.
19 Number There are two numbers in Latin: singular and plural.
20 Singular The singular speaks of one: via, a road.
21 Plural The plural speaks of more than one: viae, roads
22A Cases There are six cases in Latin:
22B Nominative The case of the Subject
22C Genitive The case of the Possessor
22D Dative The case of the Indirect Object; the 'to' or 'for' case
22E Accusative The case of the Direct Object
22F Ablative The 'by-with-from' case (used frequently with prepositions)
22G Vocative The case of the Person Addressed
23 Declension Declension consists in adding the proper ENDINGS to the STEM to show the different genders, numbers, and cases.
24 Finding the Stem The stem is found by dropping the ENDING of the GENITIVE SINGULAR. vi-ae, stem:vi-
25 The Five Declensions There are five declensions in Latin. They can be distinguished by the endings of the genitive singular.
1st Declension -ae vi-ae
2nd Declension -ī serv-ī
3rd Declension -is lēg-is
4th Declension -ūs port-ūs
5th Declension -eī r-eī
26 How to Decline a Noun The nominative, genitive, and gender of a noun determine which model it follows. Add the endings of that model to the stem.
27 Stem and Endings The stem is that part of the word which remains the same in spelling throughout the declension. It gives the meaning of the word. The endings show what the word does in the sentence, whether it is the subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.
28 Vocative Endings The vocative of all nouns and adjectives is always like the nominative except in singular nouns in -us of the second declension: these have -e. Serv-e! Slave!
28B Vocative Endings Exceptions Exceptions: Proper nouns in -ius and fīlius, son, have only -ī in the vocative singular. Vergilius, voc. Vergilī; fīlius, voc. fīlī. The vocative singular of Deus, God, is Deus; the vocative masculine singular of meus is mī; fīlī mī! my son!
29 Accusative of neuter nouns and adjectives The accusative of neuter nouns and adjectives is always like the nominative.
30 Locative Names of towns, and domus, home, and rūs, country, have another case-the locative-expressing place where. In singulars of the first and second declensions the locative is like the genitive: Rōmae, at Rome.
30 Locative, continued In all others it is like the ablative: Carthāgine (Carthāgō, Carthāginis), at Carthage. But rūs, country, has rūrī or rūre, in the country. See No.915.
31 The First Declension See Henle Grammar Book
32 Gender All nouns naming individual male persons are masculine. Nauta, ae, a sailor, masculine. (Sailors are usually men.)
33 Gender, continued All others are feminine. terra, ae, land, feminine.
Created by: DianaN



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