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EKG Midterm

EKG Midterm Review

RMP -80 to - 90
TMP -60 to -70
AMP +30 to +40
SA Node 60-100
AV Node 40-60
Depolarization Inside of cell goes from neg. to positive (muscle contraction follows)
Repolarization Inside of cell goes from positive to neg. (muscle relaxation follows)
Automaticity Ability to initiate impulse (Pacemaker cells)
Excitability The ability to respond to the impulse (pacemaker or muscle cells)
Conductivity The ability to propagate impulse. (pacemaker or muscle cells)
Contractility To shorten and contract. Can only be done by muscle cells.
All or Nothing Principle Any electrical activity less than positive 30 Mv will not cause a mechanical contraction.
Number One law Electrical precedes Mechanical.
Number Two Law Whenever a charge is in motion, a current is produced.;
V1 Fourth Intercostal space at the right margin of the sternal border.
V2 Fourth Intercostal space at the Left margin of the sternal border.
V3 Midway between position V2 and V4on bone.
V4 Fifth intercostal space at the left midclavical line (middle of collarbone)
V5 At level of position of V4 but on the anterior axillary line (Fifth intercostal space)
V6 At level of position of V4 but on the midaxillary line. (Middle of armpit).
What is the name of the sac around the heart? Pericardium
What is the point at which the heart is most tilted to the left? Apex
What is connected to the AV valves? Chordae tendinae
What describes the ability of the heart to initiate its own electrical impulse? Automaticity
What has the thickest wall and is described as the main pump of the heart? Left Ventricle
What is seen leaving the cell during Repolarization? NA+
Whenever a charge is in motion what is produced? a current
What structure is made of myocardial tissue and separates the right and left sides of the heart? Septum
What structure controls the movement and position of the AV valves of the heart? Papillary Muscles
What causes Ventricular Contraction? Ventricular Depolarization
What causes Atrial Contractions? Atrial Depolarization
The inner lining of the heart is termed? Endocardium
What activities causes Excitability? Cardiac Muscle cells and Pacemaker Cells
What is another term for Contraction? Systole
What structures carries Oxygenated Blood to the body? Aorta
What structure carries Deoxygenated Blood to the Heart? Vena Cava
depolarization of the atria P wave
AV delay PR segment
combined atrial depolarization and AV delay PR Interval
depolarization of Ventricles QRS Complex
ventricular Contraction ST Wave
Repolarization of Ventricles T Wave
When doing a standardization ECG should measure what? 10 mm or 1 mV
Waveform of PR Interval begining of P wave to start of R wave
Waveform of QRS Complex Start of Q to end of S wave
Waveform of ST segment End of S to beginning of T wave
Waveform of QT Interval Start of Q wave to end of T wave
when 2 or more limbs are use to form a neutral negative point this is called what? Unipolar
Unipolar Limb leads aVR, aVL, aVF
Bipolar Limb leads I, II, III
Which lead is usually used for continuous monitoring of the heart? Lead II
Lead I measures current flow between? RA and LA
Lead II measures current flow between RA and LL
Lead III measures current flow between LA and LL
current moving toward a positive electrode records what an Upward deflection
Current moving away from a positive or toward a negative records what kind of deflection? downward
Two principles stylus works on Temperature and pressure
ECG machine operates on ? 110 volt , 60 cycle outlet
What do we set the standard setting know at unless otherwise specified? 10mm/1mV
If you receive a wandering baseline during chest leads how may you correct this? Check electrode placement, or ask patient to hold their breath
What causes a indistinct baseline? Problem with stylus or printer
AC interference occurs on which end? Machine
If muscle tremor is recorded on Leads I and II, what lead would be the probable cause? LA
Abbreviation of electrocardiogram? ECG/EKG
The Electrocardiograph records what? Electrical potential
A grounded plug is recognized by how many prongs? 3
In AVR, if the RA lead was placed on LA, or RA lead on LL, what would result? An upward spike on EKG in AVR.. AVR should always have a negative deflection
What supplies the cardiac musculature with oxygenated blood? Coronary Arteries
Where do these structures originate from? Aorta
Systole means? contraction
Diastole means Relaxation
The 3 layers of the heart? Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium.
Structure is sometimes referred to as the dividing wall, It separates the right and left sides of the heart Septum
This chamber of the heart has the thickest myocardial wall and is described as the major pump of the heart Left Ventricle
The heart is divided into chambers, the upper are called? Atria
The lower chambers of the heart are called what? Ventricles
The function of the heart is mainly? To pump blood to and from body
These structures control movement of the AV valves Papillary muscles/ Chordae Tendinae
Mechanical contraction of the ventricles is a direct effect of what? Ventricular Depolarization
QRS Complex .06-.12 seconds
QT Interval .32-.44 seconds
PR Interval .12-.20 seconds
How to determine heart Rate? Number of small boxes from R to R (3) divided into 1500
Time measurement, One small square is equivilant to what? .04 seconds
Voltage measurement, 1 small square is equal to? 1mm
Apex Tilt
Areas of Automaticity SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of His, R bundle Branch, L Bundle Branch, Perkinji Fibers
Areas that do NOT use Automaticity? AV Node, Bundle of His, R Bundle Branch, L Bundle Branch, Perkinji Fibers
What structures have Excitability? Pacemaker and muscle cells
If SA Node has permeability change of 60-100 times a minute, what will the heart rate be? Normal 60-100 bpm
Function of Patient Cable? carries current from patient to machine
Function of Electrodes? from patient to pt. cable.
Right side function of Heart Receives from body/vena cava sends to Lungs
Left side function of heart? Receives from Lungs sends to Body
Created by: charndoug