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UTA NURS 3481 Exam 3

UTA NURS 3481 Psych Exam 3

Disabled family coping Behavior of significant person that disables his or her capacities and the client's capacities to effectively address tasks essential to either person's adaptation to the health challenge.
Ineffective coping Inability to form a valid appraisal of the stressors, inadequate choices of practiced responses, and/or inability to use available resources
Interrupted family processes Change in family relationships and/or functioning
Impaired parenting Inability of the primary caretaker to create, maintain, or regain an environment that promotes the optimum growth and development of the child
Primary prevention of abuse Measures taken to prevent the occurrence of abuse
Secondary prevention of abuse Early intervention in abusive situations to minimize their disabling or long-term effects (includes treatment)
Tertiary prevention Facilitating healing and rehabilitative process; Providing support; Assisting survivors of violence to achieve their optimal level of safety, health, and well-being
crisis situation a situation that puts stress on a family with a violent member
economic abuse The withholding of financial support or the illegal or improper exploitation of funds or other resources for one's personal gain.
emotional abuse Depriving an individual of a nurturing atmosphere in which he or she can thrive, learn, and develop (e.g., terrorizing, demeaning, consistently belittling, withholding warmth).
family violence The intentional intimidation, abuse, or neglect of children, adults, or elders by a family member, intimate partner, or caretaker in order to gain power and control over the victim.
Neglect A form of abuse that involves failure to provide for or attend to basic physical, emotional, educational, or medical needs of another.
Perpetrators Those who initiate violence.
physical abuse The infliction of physical pain or bodily harm.
safety plan A plan for rapid escape when abuse recurs.
sexual abuse Any form of sexual contact or exposure without consent or in circumstances in which the victim is incapable of giving consent.
shelters or safe houses Temporary residences that serve as refuges for abused spouses.
Survivor A term often used instead of victim because of its positive and assertive associations with recovery and healing.
vulnerable person The family member upon whom abuse is perpetrated.
cycle of violence periods of intense violence alternate with periods of safety, hope, and trust.
Cycle of violence stages (1) Tension-building stage; (2) Acute battering stage; (3) Honeymoon stage; (4) Tension-building stage
Tension reduction an attempt to defuse a tense situation/avoid further abuse by representing that one deserved the abuse (or when demonstrated by the perpetrator, via rationalization of the abuse or the use of alcohol or drugs).
Masochism a situation in which a person derives sexual or other pleasure from experiencing pain.
Epidemiology of family violence estimated that half of all Americans have experienced violence in their families.
Violence comorbidities The secondary effects of violence, such as anxiety, depression, and suicide, are health care issues that can last a lifetime.
Children most likely to be abused under 3 years old, perceived as “different,” remind the parents of someone they do not like, are the product of an unwanted pregnancy, or do not meet parental fantasy expectations.
Role of nurse r/t family violence support the victim, counsel about safety (having a plan for escape and use of a safe house), and facilitate access to other resources as appropriate.
Case management r/t family violence coordination of community, medical, criminal justice, and social systems to provide comprehensive services for the family.
Milieu management r/t family violence stabilizing the home situation and maintaining a violence-free environment (e.g., providing economic support/job opportunities, social support, and family therapy)
Health teaching and promotion r/t family violence teach normal developmental and physiological changes, coping skills, risk factors for violence, and parenting skills
acquaintance (or date) rape A rape in which the perpetrator is known to, and presumably trusted by, the person raped.
attempted rape Physical attempts and verbal threats of rape.
controlled style of coping A coping style characterized by a high degree of objectivity and intellectualization which tends toward focusing on understanding what is happening; presents with behaviors such as calmness, a subdued appearance, shock, numbness, and distractibility
expressed style of coping Overt behaviors such as crying, withdrawing, smoking, abusing alcohol and drugs, wanting to talk, acting confused or disoriented, and even laughing and joking as a way of getting through difficult times.
rape-trauma syndrome A syndrome characterized by an acute phase and a long-term reorganization process that occurs after an actual or attempted sexual assault. Each phase has separate symptoms.
acute phase of rape-trauma syndrome occurs immediately after the assault and may last for 2 to 3 weeks; Symptoms include shock, numbness, disbelief, disorganization in lifestyle, cognitive impairment with confusion, poor concentration, poor decision making, and somatic symptoms.
long-term reorganization phase of rape-trauma syndrome occurs 2 or more weeks after the rape; reactions that are likely to occur include intrusive thoughts of the event; flashbacks; dreams; insomnia; increased motor activity; anxiety; mood swings; development of fears and phobias.
sexual assault/rape Forced and violent vaginal, anal, or oral penetration against an adult victim's will and without the victim's consent. Legal definitions vary from state to state.
spousal or marital rape A rape in which the perpetrator (nearly always the male) is married to the person raped.
sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) The first specialized forensic role for nurses, SANEs are forensic nurse generalists who receive training in the care of adult and pediatric victims of sexual assault.
Prevalence of rape One in six women and 1 in 33 men will experience an attempted or completed rape during their lifetime.
Profile of sexual perpetrators Perpetrators are almost always men, tend to be young (<30 y/o), under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time of the offense, that is normally acquainted with the victim.
Psychological Effects of Sexual Assault Long-term effects may include depression, suicide, anxiety, fear, difficulties with daily functioning, sexual dysfunction, and somatic complaints.
Types of rape stranger rape, spousal or marital rape, and acquaintance or date rape
Rape-trauma syndrome Sustained maladaptive response to a forced, violent, sexual penetration against the victim's will and consent
Acute Phase of Rape-Trauma Syndrome shock, numbness, disbelief, disorganization in lifestyle, cognitive impairment with confusion, poor concentration, poor decision making, and somatic symptoms
Long-Term Reorganization Phase of Rape-Trauma Syndrome intrusive thoughts of the event; flashbacks; dreams; insomnia; increased motor activity; anxiety; mood swings; development of fears and phobias
Agnosia Loss of the ability to recognize familiar objects. For example, a person may be unable to identify familiar sounds, such as the ringing of a doorbell (auditory agnosia), or familiar objects, such as a toothbrush or keys (visual agnosia)
Agraphia Loss of a previous ability to write, resulting from brain injury or brain disease.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primary cognitive impairment disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functioning, with the end result that the person may not recognize once-familiar people, places, and things. Ability to walk and talk absent in the final stages.
Aphasia Difficulty in the formulation of words; loss of language ability. In extreme cases, a person may be limited to a few words, may babble, or may become mute.
Apraxia Loss of ability to perform purposeful movements. For example, a person may be unable to shave, to dress, or to perform other once-familiar and purposeful tasks.
cognitive disorders Psychiatric disorders that are manifested in deficits in memory, perception, and problem-solving.
Confabulation The filling in of a memory gap with a detailed fantasy believed by the teller. The purpose is to maintain self-esteem. It is seen in organic conditions such as Korsakoff's psychosis.
Delirium An acute, usually reversible alteration in consciousness typically accompanied by disturbances in thinking, memory, attention, and perception; the syndrome has multiple causes.
Dementia A progressive and usually irreversible deterioration of cognitive and intellectual functions and memory without impairment in consciousness.
Hallucinations A sense perception (seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or touching) for which no external stimulus exists (e.g., hearing voices when none are present).
Hypermetamorphosis The desire to touch everything in sight.
Hyperorality The desire to taste everything, chew everything, and put everything into one's mouth.
Hypervigilance A state of extraordinary alertness.
Illusions An error in the perception of a sensory stimulus. For example, a person may mistake polka dots on a pillow for hairy spiders.
Perseveration The involuntary repetition of the same thought, phrase, or motor response (e.g., brushing teeth, walking); it is associated with brain damage.
primary dementia Dementia that is irreversible, progressive, and not secondary to any other disorder (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and multi-infarct dementias).
Pseudodementia A disorder that mimics dementia.
secondary dementia Dementia that is due to an underlying disease process, such as a metabolic, nutritional, or neurological disorder. Dementia related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an example.
Sundowning Increasing destabilization of cognitive abilities (e.g., confusion) and lability of mood during the late afternoon, early evening, or night. Seen in people with cognitive disorders.
labile Characterized by rapid shifts in mood which may be as dramatic as laughing one minute and crying the next; unstable.
Alzheimer's Tangles found in the brain patients with Alzheimer’s disease; a buildup of neurofibrillary tangles and gray neuritic plaques consisting of beta-amyloid protein fragments
Alzheimer’s Risk factors increasing age, Down syndrome, and head injury
Stage 1 Alzheimer’s disease Mild; loses energy, drive, initiative, and has difficulty learning new things
Stage 2 Alzheimer’s disease Moderate; can’t remember addresses or dates. Hygiene and self-care are affected, mood becomes labile, and driving judgment poor.
Stage 3 Alzheimer’s disease Moderate to Severe; severe agnosia, advanced apraxia, incontinence, agitation, violence, or paranoid delusions
Stage 4 Alzheimer’s disease Late; agraphia, hyperorality, blunting of emotions, visual agnosia, hypermetamophosis, can’t walk or talk, and enter into coma or stupor.
Alzheimer's disease drugs Galantamine (Razadyne), Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon), Memantine (Namenda), Tacrine (THA, Cognex), Ginkgo Biloba
cholinesterase inhibitor side effects n/v/d, insomnia, fatigue, muscle cramps, incontinence, Bradycardia, and syncope
Tacrine (THA, Cognex) drug classification cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer’s
Tacrine (THA, Cognex) concern High incidence of liver side effects; no longer used extensively
Donepezil (Aricept) drug classification cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer’s
Rivastigmine (Exelon) drug classification cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer’s
Galantamine (Razadyne) drug classification cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer’s
Memantine (Namenda) drug classification N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist used to treat Alzheimer’s
Memantine (Namenda) side effects dizziness, agitation, headache, constipation, and confusion
Memantine (Namenda) concern clearance reduced with renal impairment; use cautiously with moderate impairment and do not use with sever impairment
Ginkgo biloba concerns risk of ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks; risk for those that take anticoagulants
factors that can contribute to dementia in vulnerable persons diet, diminished physical and mental activity, and cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension.
common causes of delirium drug intoxications/withdrawals (alcohol, anxiolytics, opioids, & CNS stimulants); infections; metabolic disorders; drugs (anticholinergics); neurological diseases; tumor; psychosocial stressors
Perceptual distortion impaired ability to process intellectual, sensory and emotional data in a logical meaningful way.
anticipatory grief Grief that occurs before an actual loss. During this time, painful feelings may be partially resolved.
Bereavement The period of grieving following a death; derived from the Old English word berafian, meaning “to rob.”
caring presence Refers to the therapeutic benefit of simply being available and present for patients.
disenfranchised grief Grief that cannot be publicly acknowledged because the loss is not congruent with a socially recognized and sanctioned relationship.
Four Gifts of Resolving Relationships A means of opening conversations about a coming separation; the four gifts include forgiveness, love, gratitude, and farewell.
Grief The subjective feelings and affect that are precipitated by a loss.
Hospice services offered to patients with terminal illnesses and their families as support at the end of life.
Mourning The process by which grief is resolved.
palliative care comfort care
Seven motifs struggle, dissonance, endurance, incorporation, coping, quest, volatile
Struggle motif living and dying are a struggle
Dissonance motif dying is not living
Endurance motif triumph of inner strength
Incorporation belief system accommodates death
Coping working to find a new balance
Quest seeking meaning in dying
Volatile unresolved and unresigned
Four tasks of mourning accept the reality of the loss, experience the pain of grief, adjust to an environment without the loved one (externally, internally, and spiritually), and relocate and memorialize the loved one.
Four constructs that support personal growth from death seeing some good resulting from the death, continuing the connection with the deceased, invoking intrinsic spirituality to understand death and aftermath, and going forward with life.
The four gifts of resolving relationships forgiveness, love, gratitude, and farewell. When expressed to a terminally ill client by a significant other they precipitate a healing shift in relationships.
adjustment disorder A psychological response to identifiable stressor(s), with symptoms developing within 3 months of the stressor(s).
bibliotherapy The use of literature to assists the individual to express feelings, gain insight into feelings and behavior, and learn new ways to cope with difficult situations.
pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) A psychiatric disorder characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in reciprocal social interaction and communication skills, usually accompanied by stereotypical behavior, interests, and activities.
play therapy An intervention that allows a child to symbolically express feelings such as aggression, self-doubt, anxiety, and sadness through the medium of play.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent reexperiencing of a highly traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury to self or others, to which the individual responded with intense fear, helplessness, or horror.
principle of least restrictive intervention a principle that requires that more-restrictive interventions should be used only after less-restrictive interventions have been attempted to manage the behavior.
Resilience The ability to adapt and cope which helps people to face tragedies, loss, trauma, and severe stress.
Temperament The style of behavior a child habitually uses to cope with the demands and expectations of the environment.
therapeutic games Games the nurse can play with a child to facilitate the development of a therapeutic relationship and provide opportunity for conversation.
Quiet room An unlocked room used for removing a child from the situation to regain self-control with staff support
freedom room a type of quiet room that contains items for relaxation and meditation like music and yoga mats
feelings room carpeted room supplied with soft objects that can be punched or thrown
time-out area an area in which a child can go to sit until self-control is regained and the episode of behavior can be reviewed with a staff member.
Resilience developing and using certain characteristics that help handle stresses of a difficult childhood without developing mental problems
Temperament the behavior the child habitually uses to cope with the environment
children at risk for developing psychiatric disorders large families, low socioeconomic status, foster care, and mothers have psychiatric disorders.
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta) CNS stimulant used for ADHD
dextroamphetamine (Adderall) CNS stimulant used for ADHD
atomoxetine (Strattera) SNRI used for ADHD
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse) CNS stimulant used for ADHD
Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) CNS stimulant used for ADHD
Stimulant ADHD medication side effects insomnia, headache, abdominal pain, lethargy, appetite suppression
Strattera side effects gastrointestinal disturbances, reduced appetite, weight loss, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, increased BP & HR, and rare allergic reactions
Mutual storytelling a technique for helping young children express themselves verbally by asking the child to make up a story and state the lesson or moral of the story, then having the nurse retell the story with a healthier resolution.
autistic disorder usually first observed before 3 years; a behavioral syndrome resulting from abnormal left brain function (language, logic, reasoning)
autistic disorder characteristics impairment in communication and imaginative activity; impairment in social interactions; markedly restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, and activities.
Asperger’s disorder differentiating factors later onset than autistic disorder with no significant delay in cognitive and language development
Asperger’s disorder characteristics impairment in social interactions; restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and idiosyncratic interests (fascination with remembering train schedules or dates); and delayed motor milestones
Rett’s disorder differentiating factors observed only in females, onset before 4 years
Rett’s characteristics loss of manual skills, development of stereotyped hand movements (hand wringing), problems with coordination and gait, severe psychomotor retardation, severe problems with expressive and receptive language, and loss of interest in social interactions.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than that typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development
oppositional defiant disorder characteristics recurrent pattern of negativistic, disobedient, hostile, defiant behavior toward authority figures, without going so far as to seriously violate the basic rights of others.
conduct disorder characteristics persistent pattern of behavior in which the rights of others are violated and age-appropriate societal norms or rules are disregarded.
Separation Anxiety Disorder characteristics child becomes excessively anxious when separated from or anticipating separation from their home or parental figures
Tourette’s disorder characteristics motor and verbal tics, appearing between 2-7 years, that cause marked distress and significant impairment in social and occupational functioning
Coprolalia uttering of obscenities
Adjustment disorder characteristics decreased performance at school and temporary changes in social relationships occurring within 3 months of an identifiable stressor and lasting no longer than 6 months after the stress has ceased.
pica persistent eating of nonnutritive substances
rumination disorder the repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food
behavioral family therapy A treatment in which family members identify undesirable behaviors, how they can unlearn these behaviors, and how they can learn more desirable behaviors.
Boundaries Those functions that maintain a clear distinction among individuals within a family or group and between family members and the outside world. Boundaries may be clear, diffuse, rigid, or inconsistent.
clear boundaries Boundaries that are understood by all members of the family and give family members a sense of “I-ness” and also “we-ness.”
diffuse or enmeshed boundaries A blending together of roles, thoughts, and feelings of individuals so that clear distinctions among family members (or others) fail to emerge.
rigid or disengaged boundaries Adherence to the “rules and roles” within a family, no matter what the situation. Rigid boundaries prevent family members from trying out new roles or taking on more mature functions.
family systems theory A theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotionally connected unit and describes their interactions through a systems perspective.
family triangle dysfunctional phenomenon in which a third person is brought into a two-person relationship to help relieve anxiety or stress between two family members.
Flexibility allows for the changes inherent to normal growth and development.
Genogram A systematic diagram of the three-generational relationships within a family system.
insight-oriented family therapy A traditional therapeutic modality that emphasizes understanding the origins of problems in order to address them.
multigenerational issues Various family patterns passed down through the generations.
nuclear family A family that includes a parent or parents and the children under the parents' care.
psychoeducational family therapy focuses on altering interactions between a couple, within a nuclear or extended family, or between a family and other interpersonal systems, with the goal of alleviating problems initially presented
sociocultural context The culture that a person lives in, which includes the people and environment with whom the person interacts.
double-bind theory a situation in which two conflicting messages are given simultaneously on two levels, verbal and nonverbal. The individual is placed in a position in which no acceptable response exists.
Family therapy strategic model changing any element in the family system brings change to the entire system
Family therapy structural model emphasizes boundaries between family subsystems and the establishment and maintenance of a clear hierarchy based on parental competence
antisocial personality disorder A syndrome in which a person lacks the capacity to relate to others, does not experience discomfort in inflicting or observing pain in others, and may manipulate others for personal gain.
avoidant personality disorder A personality disorder in which the central characteristics are an extreme sensitivity to rejection and robust avoidance of interpersonal situations.
borderline personality disorder A disorder characterized by disordered images of self, impulsive and unpredictable behavior, marked shifts in mood, and instability in relationships with others.
dependent personality disorder A personality disorder in which a person has a pattern of establishing relationships in which he or she is submissive, passive, self-doubting, and avoidant of responsibility.
diathesis-stress model A general theory that explains psychopathology using a multi-causational systems approach.
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) an evidenced-based therapy to successfully treat chronically suicidal persons with borderline personality disorder; combines cognitive and behavioral techniques with mindfulness, which emphasizes being aware of thoughts and actively shaping them
histrionic personality disorder A personality disorder in which there is a dramatic presentation of oneself with pervasive and excessive emotionality in order to seek attention, love, and admiration.
narcissistic personality disorder A disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy for others.
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder A personality disorder in which the key characteristic is perfectionism with a focus on orderliness and control.
paranoid personality disorder A personality disorder in which the key characteristics are distrust and suspiciousness toward others based on the belief (unsupported by evidence) that others want to exploit, harm, or deceive.
Personality Deeply ingrained personal patterns of behavior, traits, and thoughts that evolve, both consciously and unconsciously, as a person's style and way of adapting to the environment.
personality disorder An enduring pattern of experience and behavior that deviates significantly from the expectations within the individual's culture.
schizoid personality disorder A personality disorder in which there is a serious defect in interpersonal relationships. Characteristics include lack of warmth, aloofness, and indifference to the feelings of others.
schizotypal personality disorder A personality disorder in which strikingly odd characteristics (e.g., magical thinking, derealization, perceptual distortions, rigid ideas) are expressed.
Splitting A primitive defense mechanism in which the person sees self or others as all good or all bad, failing to integrate the positive and negative qualities of the self and others into a cohesive whole.
Personality disorder commonalities (1) inflexible and maladaptive response to stress; (2) disability in working and loving; (3) ability to evoke interpersonal conflict; (4) capacity to frustrate others.
Cluster A personality disorders paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.
Cluster A shared characteristics eccentric and odd behaviors, such as social isolation and detachment. There may also be perception distortions, unusual levels of suspiciousness, magical thinking, and cognitive impairment.
Cluster B personality disorders antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder.
Cluster B shared characteristics patterns of responding to life demands with dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior, problems with impulse control, emotion processing and regulation, and interpersonal difficulties.
Cluster C personality disorders avoidant personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, dependent personality disorder
Cluster C shared characteristics anxious and fearful behaviors, rigid patterns of social shyness, hypersensitivity, need for orderliness, and relationship dependency.
alternate personality (alter) or subpersonality A distinct personality state that recurrently takes control of a behavior of a person with dissociative identity disorder.
body dysmorphic disorder A somatoform disorder that involves preoccupation with an imagined defective body part, resulting in obsessional thinking and compulsive behavior.
conversion disorder A somatoform disorder characterized by the presence of deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions, including blindness, paralysis, movement disorder, gait disorder, numbness, paresthesia, loss of vision or hearing, or episodes resembling epilepsy.
depersonalization disorder A dissociative disorder in which there is a persistent or recurrent alteration in the perception of the self while reality testing remains intact.
dissociative amnesia A dissociative disorder marked by the inability to recall important personal information, often of a traumatic or stressful nature.
localized amnesia patient is unable to remember all events in a certain period
selective amnesia patient is able to recall some but not all events in a certain period
dissociative disorders Disorders reflecting a disturbance in the normally well-integrated continuum of consciousness, memory, identity, and perception.
dissociative fugue A dissociative disorder characterized by sudden, unexpected travel away from the customary locale and inability to recall one's identity and information about some or all of the past.
dissociative identity disorder (DID) A dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct personality states recurrently take control of behavior.
factitious disorder Psychiatric disorders in which people consciously pretend to be ill to get emotional needs met and attain the status of “patient.”
factitious disorder by proxy aka Munchausen syndrome by proxy, a factitious disorder in which a caregiver deliberately feigns illness in a vulnerable dependent, usually a child, for the purpose of the attention, excitement, and treatment by health care providers of that dependent.
Hypochondriasis Excessive preoccupation with one's physical health in the absence of any organic pathology; results in the misinterpretation of innocent physical sensations as evidence of a serious illness
la belle indifference Sometimes seen in pts with Conversion Disorder; An affect or attitude of inappropriate unconcern about a symptom that is seen when the symptom is unconsciously used to lower anxiety.
Malingering A conscious effort to deceive others, often for financial gain, by pretending to have physical symptoms.
Munchausen syndrome A psychiatric syndrome in which a person, usually one knowledgeable of medical treatment, purposefully produces symptoms of a disease, illness, or trauma in order to elicit help, care, and treatment from medical personnel.
pain disorder A somatoform disorder in which testing rules out any organic cause of the patient's pain; the pain leads to significant impairment.
secondary gains benefits derived from symptoms (e.g., in the sick role, the patient is not able to perform the usual family, work, and social functions and receives extra attention from loved ones)
somatization The expression of psychological stress through physical symptoms.
somatization disorder A psychiatric problem in which a person chronically and persistently complains of multiple physical problems that have no physical origin and interfere with day-to-day functioning.
somatoform disorders Psychiatric disorders in which the patient's physical symptoms suggest a physical disorder for which there is no demonstrable cause and a strong presumption that the symptoms are linked to psychobiological factors exists.
Disturbed personal identity Inability to maintain an integrated and complete perception of self.
Impaired social interaction Insufficient or excessive quantity or ineffective quality of social exchange
neurotransmitter implicated in pain disorder and body dysmorphic disorder serotonin
anorexia nervosa loss of appetite. A person with anorexia nervosa, however, may not have any loss of appetite and often is preoccupied with food and eating. A person with this disorder may suppress the desire for food in order to control his or her eating.
binge eating disorder An eating disorder in which individuals engage in repeated episodes of binge eating, after which they experience significant distress.
bulimia nervosa Episodes of excessive and uncontrollable intake of large amounts of food (binges), usually alternating with compensatory activities such as self-induced vomiting, use of cathartics and/or diuretics, and self-starvation.
cognitive distortions Inaccurate and irrational automatic thoughts or ideas that lead to false assumptions and misinterpretations.
refeeding syndrome a potentially catastrophic treatment complication of anorexia nervosa involving a metabolic alteration in serum electrolytes, vitamin deficiencies, and sodium retention
s/s of induced vomiting enlarged parotid glands, dental erosion, and caries
possible cause of eating disorders serotonin imbalance (improvement shown with use of SSRIs)
issue associated with excessive vomiting (bulimia) loss of potassium (hypokalemia)
issue associated with excessive use of enemas & laxatives disruption in fluid and electrolyte balance
maximum weekly weight gain (anorexia) 3lbs/wk
issue associated with too-rapid weight gain pulmonary edema
bupropion (Prozac) concern for bulimia increased risk of seizures
physical criteria for hospitalization of patient with eating disorder weight loss over 30% over 6 mo, rapid decline in weight, inability to gain weight OP, temp < 36° C or 96.8° F, HR <40, systolic BP < 70, hypokalemia (<3) or other electrolyte disturbances, ECG changes (arrhythmias)
psychiatric criteria for hospitalization of patient with eating disorder suicidal/self-mutilating behaviors; excessive use of laxitives, emetics, diuretics, or street drugs; failure to comply with treatment; severe depression; psychosis; family crisis or dysfunction
Medical complications of Bulimia Nervosa Bradycardia, orthostatic BP changes, arrhythmias, cardiac arrest/murmur, electrolyte imb, elev bicarbonate, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, dehydration, teeth erosion, parotid gland enlargement, esophageal tears, abdominal pain, Russell’s sign
Russell’s sign callus on knuckles from self-induced vomiting
coping skills Skills that enable a patient to develop healthier ways of looking at and dealing with illness.
holistic approach assessment of physical, psychosocial, social, and spiritual needs.
human rights abuses Includes failure to investigate somatic complaints of psychiatric patients, avoiding contact stigmatized persons, hastly labeling with psychiatric diagnosis normal emotional responses, inappropriate psychiatric admissions.
psychiatric liaison nursing The liaison nurse functions as a nursing consultant in addressing psychosocial concerns and as a clinician in helping the patient deal more effectively with physical and emotional problems.
stigmatized persons with medical conditions those who have mental illnesses, those who are HIV positive, and those who have undergone transgender surgeries or treatments.
Dyssomnias Sleep disturbances associated with the initiation and maintenance of sleep or of excessive sleepiness.
excessive sleepiness (ES) A subjective report of difficulty staying awake that is serious enough to impact social and vocational functioning and increase the risk for accident or injury.
Parasomnias unusual or undesirable behaviors/events that occur during sleep/wake transitions, certain stages of sleep, or during arousal from sleep. Include nightmare disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep paralysis.
sleep architecture The structural organization of NREM and REM sleep.
sleep continuity The distribution of sleep and wakefulness across the sleep period.
sleep deprivation A state that occurs from a discrepancy between hours of sleep obtained and hours of sleep required for optimal functioning.
sleep efficiency Ratio of sleep duration to time spent in bed.
sleep fragmentation Disruption of sleep stages as indicated by excessive amounts of stage 1 sleep, multiple brief arousals, and frequent shifts in sleep staging.
sleep hygiene Conditions and practices that promote continuous and effective sleep.
sleep latency The time it takes to go to sleep.
sleep restriction Limiting the total sleep time, which creates a temporary, mild state of sleep deprivation and strengthens the sleep homeostatic drive.
stimulus control Adherence to five basic principles that decrease the negative associations between the bed and bedroom and strengthen the stimulus for sleep.
National Sleep Foundation recommendations for hours of sleep each night 7-9 hours
symptoms characteristic of most sleep disorders insomnia, hypersomnia, somnolence, parasomnia, and sleep/wake schedule disturbance.
Primary sleep disorders dyssomnia, primary insomnia, and parasomnias
Restoril (temazepam) benzodiazepine used as a sleep aid
Sonata (zaleplon) sleep aid
Ambien (zolpidem) sleep aid
Lunesta (eszopiclone) sleep aid
Rozerem (ramelteon) sleep aid
Valerian herbal sleep aid
Valerian concern liver issues
Melatonin herbal seep aid
Desyrel (trazlodone) atypical antidepressant used as a sleep aid
Sleep condition associated with hypothyroidism hypersomnia
Non-habit forming medications used for insomnia Ramelteon (Rozerem)
Acupuncture An aspect of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the placement of needles into the skin at meridian points to modulate the flow of qi.
Aromatherapy The use of essential oils for enhancing physical and mental well-being and healing.
chiropractic medicine Focuses on the relationship between structure and function and the way relationship affects the preservation and restoration of health, using manipulative therapy as a treatment tool.
conventional health care system Also known as allopathic, mainstream, or orthodox medicine; regular medicine; and biomedicine; based largely on highly controlled, evidence-based scientific research.
healing touch A derivative of therapeutic touch that combines several energy therapies and is based on the belief that the body is a complex energy system that can be influenced by another through that person's intention for healing and well-being.
Holism (1) identification interrelationships of the bio-psycho-social-spiritual dimensions of the person, recognizing that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts (2) understanding the individual as a unitary whole in mutual process with the environment
herbal therapy The use of plants or plant products to improve health, prevent illness, and/or treat illness.
Homeopathy A Western alternative medical system in which small doses (dilutions) of specially prepared plant extracts, herbs, minerals, and other materials are used to stimulate the body's defense mechanisms and healing processes.
integrative care (integrative medicine) Care that places the patient at the center of care, focuses on prevention and wellness, and attends to the patient's physical, mental, and spiritual needs.
Naturopathy emphasizes health restoration rather than disease treatment and combines nutrition, homeopathy, herbal medicine, hydrotherapy, light therapy, therapeutic counseling, and other therapies.
Reiki An energy-based therapy in which the practitioner's energy is connected to a universal source (chi, qi, prana) and is transferred to a recipient for physical or spiritual healing.
therapeutic touch An energy therapy in which the practitioner focuses completely on the person receiving the treatment, assesses the energy field, clears and balances the energy field through hand movements, and/or directs energy in a specific region of the body.
Created by: camellia