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Patho Ch1

Cellular Biology

TermDefinition
absolute refractory period The time when the plasma membrane cannot respond to an additional stimulus; most of the action potential
action potential A rapid change that occurs in the resting membrane
active mediated transport The protein transporter moves molecules against, or up, the concentration gradient.
active transport Process by which molecules are moved in and out of the cell, which requires life, biologic activity & cells expenditure of metabolic energy.
amphipathic One part is hydrophobic (uncharged or water hating) and another part is hydrophilic(charged or water loving)
anabolism The energy-using process of metabolism
anaphase The phase that begins when centromeres split & the sister chromatids are pulled apart
anion Ions that carry a negative charge & migrate toward the positive pole or cathode in the presence of
antiport The process of two molecules moving simultaneously in opposite directions
arrested (resting) (G0)state Cells that are started of growth factors come to a halt after mitosis & enter this state.
autocrine signaling Signals that cells produce that they alone respond to i.e. cancer cells
basement membrane Type IV collagen; laminin; proteoglycan Part of the extracellular matrix
catabolism The energy-releasing process of metabolism
cation Ions with a positive charge
caveolae (tiny caves); these dimple the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Serve as a storage site for many receptors & provide a route for transport into the cell
caveolin Scaffolding protein that is the main component
cell adhesion molecule (CAM) Proteins that allow cells to hook together & form attachments of the cytoskeleton for maintaining cellular shape.
cell cycle The alternation between mitosis & interphase in all tissues with cellular turnover
cell junction The specialized plasma membrane regions that interconnect cells in direct physical contact with neighboring cells.
cell-to-cell adhesion Groups of cells held together robustly to form tissues & organs.
cellular metabolism All of the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions
cellular receptor Protein molecules on the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus that can recognize & bind with ligands
centromere Spindle site of the chromatid
chemical synapse The specialized junctions that neurotransmitters are released from to allow neurons to communicate directly with the cells
chromatid Two identical halves of a chromosome
chromatin The combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell
citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) Most ATP is generated during this final phase;
clathrin coat or bristles may be responsible for trapping membrane receptors in coated pits.
coated pit Specialized areas of the membrane that cluster, aggregate & immobilize receptors.
collagen Forms cablelike fibers or sheets that provide tensile strength or resistance to longitudinal stress.
competitive inhibitor Solute binding blocked by this; They compete for the same receptor site & may or may not be transported by the transport protein.
concentration gradient The difference in concentration of a molecule
connective tissue The matrix and the cells within the extracellular matrix and they interconnect cells to form tissue & organs.
connexon Joining proteins that extend outward from each of the adjacent plasma membranes.
cytokinesis Cytoplasmic division
cytoplasm The fluid filling on the eukaryotic cell
cytoplasmic matrix The space between the nuclear envelope & the plasma membrane.
cytosol The aqueous solution that cytoplasm is in
contact-dependent-signaling Requires cells to be in close membrane-membrane contact
daugther cell
depolarization
desmosome
differentiation The process that cells become specialized.
diffusion
digestion
effective osmolality
elastin Rubber-like protein fiber most abundant in tissues that must be capable of stretching & recoiling. i.e. lungs
electrolyte
electron-transport chain
endocytosis
equatorial plate (metaphase plate)
eukaryote Larger & have more extensive intracellular anatomy & organization than prokaryotes;
exocytosis
extracellular matrix An intricate meshwork of fibrous proteins embedded in a watery, gel-like substance composed of complex carbohydrates.
Created by: aliciadees1