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peds 243

prep child for developmental characteristics

QuestionAnswer
When dealing with an infant, what is most important developmental characterists. (think ericson) Develop trust and sensorimotor
Consider infant and who they have trust with? Attachment to parents is prevalent to infants and is factor when preparing infant for procedure.
When factoring infants attachment to parent, what things can you do to prep for procedure? Have parent in line of vision of infant; involve parent with procedure.
If parent is not available, then what else can you do to prep infant for procedure? Place familiar object, blankey or stuffed animal with infant.
Infant how to overcome stranger anxiety Have usual caregivers perform or assist with procedures; approach infant slowly; limit number of people in room.
examples of infant soothing measures stroking skin, talking softly, giving pacifier
Infant muscle strength increased or decreased? Will be increased
Infant able to resist? Yes
Interventions to prevent infant to cause self harm. Remove harmful objects out of their reach, immobilize infant.
Are infants able to associate memories for past sexperiences? Yes, they may cry or act out at sight of objects they associate memories to; keep frightening objects out of view.
Interventions to decrease risk of an infant developing memories associated to a room or objects? Perform painful procedures in seperate room, not in crib or bed;
Examples of less intrusive procedures. Axillary meds, oral medications.
Appropriate intervention to develop Infant trust is using gestures such as Model desired behavior...(e.g. peek a book, open mouth)
Toddler develops a sense of autonomy and senses to preoperational thought- what is preoperational thought? go beyond recognizing and is able to use words and images to refer to objects; They also begin to understand that they can physically do things to objects, like dropping a ball will make it roll away from their view.
Toddler: Egocentric thought where the child views the world exclusively from her own perspective, helps her cope with her anxieties. It also encourages toddlers' explorations as they reach the milestones of toddlerhood, including walking and language.
Interventions when addressing toddler egocentric thought as it relates to their senses. Explain procedure in relation to what the child can hear, see, taste, smell and feel.
toddler egocentric seeing is believing: I see presents so therefore they are mine (when they aren't)
Toddler intervention for egocentric thought when explaining procedures emphasize procedures that require cooperation; tell them it is okay to cry or yell to express discomfort.
Toddler - is it normal to demonstrate negative behavior? Yes, expect resistance to treatments and child to attempt to runaway
What to do if a toddler is having a tantrum? Ignore them
Interventions to toddlers neg behavior use distraction, use firm, direct approach.
Examples of neg behavior of distraction techniques singing a song with a child.
Toddlers identify objects with life like qualities and fear being harmed. Animism
Toddlers have limited language skills, how do you communicate with them? Use behaviors, use few simple terms familiar with child, give one direction at a time, use small replicas of equipment; allow child to handle equipment.
Communication interventions with toddlers Demonstrate on dolls/toys; allow child to handle equipment;
How to prepare parents of toddlers Explain procedure to parents in a separate room to avoid child misinterpreting words.
Do you say anything to the toddler when procedure is done? Yes, you tell child when procedure is complete
Toddlers strive for what? Independence
Interventions for toddlers with regards to meeting their need for independence Allow choices, allow to participate in cares and help whenever possible.
Preschool stage of development inititative and preoperational
preschool are egocentric as well as toddlers with this in mind, use simple terms, demo equipment, allow child to play with actual equipment.
Preschoolers and playing out encourage to play out on a doll before and after the procedure to clarify misconceptions.
Preschoolers have increased language skills and it is acceptable to use the following interventions: verbal explanation, but ovoid overestimating comprehension; encourage child to verbalize feelings and ideas.
Toddlers avoid delays make sure to have extra equipment nearby.
Preschooler teaching session implement same approaches as toddler, but plan for longer 10 to 15 minutes.
preschoolers view Illness and hospitalization viewed as punishment- true or false. True
Interventions for preschoolers that view illness as punishment Clarify procedures; child will have difficulty associating painful procedure with making them feel better.
Ask thoughts regarding procedure; state directly that procedure are never a form of punishment Interventions for preschoolers that view illness as punishment
Preschoolers and animism preschooler view objects as life like, need to keep them out of view, except when showing the child how it is used.
Preschoolers are afraid of what? Fear bodily harm, intrusion, and castration.
Interventions to help preschoolers overcome fears use drawings, dolls and point out location of procedure; use less intruisive behaviors;
Parents presence are important for preschoolers because They fear bodily harm,
Interventions when procedure involves genitalia with a preschooler. wear underwear under gown, know that it will provoke anxiety.
Stives for initiative Preschoolers ideally assert control & power over environment by taking initiative- they plan activities, accomplish tasks and face challenges.
During this stage, it is important for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices It is important for parents of preschoolers to recognize their initiative.
interventions for preschooler who is seeking initiative Give choices and avoid delays; involve child whenever possible; praise child for cooperation.
example of dismissing/shaming preschooler during the initiative stage shaming child for lack of cooperation can be damaging to a preschooler.
School stage of development Industry and concrete thought
Communication interventons for school age kids use scientific or medical terms; use diagrams; allow them to manipulate equipment.
Would you use a doll to help explain procedure to a school age child? Using a doll for an older child may be inappopriate and will be seen as childish.
How much time should you plan for when teaching a school age child? Longer teaching sessions- about 20 minutes
A school age child with demo increased self control when this is done Gain child cooperation; tell them what is expected; Suggest ways they can control situation (deep breathing, relaxation, etc)
School age kids strive for what? Industry
Industry Strive to master new skills. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills.
Intervention for industry Allow for responsibility for simple tasks; include child in decision making; encourage active participation.
School age kids and relationship with peers learning to develop relationship with peers.
Prepare 2 or more children for same procedure or encourage one peer to help prepare another; Interventions for school age kids using peers
Is privacy important to school age Yes, privacy is important. make sure peers are not present during a procedure.
Adolescent developmental stage Identity and abstract thought.
Explaining a procedure to adolescents require supplements & reasons why procedure is necessary or beneficial.
Do adolescents realize consequences of procedures yes, they fear death, disability or other risks.
Do you need to tell adolescent long term consequences of procedure Yes, they should be told.
Adolescent and appearance Provide privacy, discuss appearance such as scars, but also emphasize any physcial benefits of procedures.
Are adolescents more with the present than the future. Yes, they live in the moment- understanding the immediate effects of procedure are more significant than future benefits.
Adolscents strive for what? Independence and should be involved in decision making and planning.
With regards to independence for adolescents Minimize restrictions, suggest ways they can maintain control, accept regression as way to cope.
Will adolscents have difficulty accepting new authority. yes, they will have difficulty accepting new authority figures and may resist complying with procedures.
Peer relationships and adolscents significantly more important than from school age.
Intervention with adolscent and their peers May be beneficial to hear from peers who experienced the same procedure.
Created by: Wends1984