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Physiology of Sleep Reticular activating system (RAS),Bulbar synchronizing region and Hypothalamus—control center for sleeping and waking
Reticular activating system (RAS) Facilitates reflex and voluntary movements and controls cortical activities related to state of alertness
Stages of Sleep Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) - four stages and Rapid eye movement (REM)
NREM Consists of four stages Stage I and II—5% to 50 % of sleep, light sleep Stage III and IV—10% of sleep, deep-sleep states (delta sleep)
REM dream state
Sleep Cycle The person passes consecutively through four stages of NREM sleep.The pattern is then reversed in which the person returns from stage IV to III to II then enters REM sleep instead of reentering stage I
Sleep Cycle con't The person reenters NREM sleep at stage II and moves on to III and IV.
Developemntal Factors Affecting Sleep Infants sleep alot, toddler sleep 12 hrs, adolscents are more nocturnal and like to stay up late. Adults 6-10hr. Elderly sleep alot less
Physical activity and exercise Factors Affecting Sleep
Illnesses Associated With Sleep Disturbances Peptic ulcers,Coronary artery diseases,Epilepsy,Liver failure and encephalitis,Hypothyroidism
Nursing Interview Identify patient’s sleep–wakefulness patterns,Identify effect of these patterns on everyday functioning,Assess patient’s use of sleep aids, Assess the presence of sleep disturbances and contributing factors
Sleep Characteristics to Assess Restlessness,Sleep postures,Sleep activities,Snoring, Leg jerking
Dyssomnias —characterized by insomnia or excessive sleepiness
Parasomnias —patterns of waking behavior that appear during sleep
Dyssomnias Insomnia,Hypersomnia,Narcolepsy,Sleep apnea,Restless leg syndrome,Sleep deprivation
Parasomnias Somnambulism,sleep talking,Bruxism,Enuresis,Sleep-related eating disorder
Treatment for Dyssomnias Pharmacologic therapy(Sedatives and hypnotics) and Nonpharmacologic therapy:Stimulus control,Sleep restriction Relaxation therapy
Created by: cjnnovak