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Grade 10: Bio

Grade 10: Science

Chromosomes In a cell nucleus, a thread-like structure made mostly of DNA
DNA Material found in the cell nucleus that contains genetic information. (a.k.a deoxyribonucleic acid) 3% of DNA are genes, 97% unknown. It is in a double helix structure. Transports messages/nutrients, holds enzymes.
Nucleotides The building blocks of Genes/DNA - Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
Mutations A change in the DNA of an organism that causes the structure of the protein it produces and affects how well the protein does its job. The order of A,C,T, and G can change for no reason but are usually affected by mutagens.
Mutagens A substance that physically damages the gene structure (e.x Electromagnetic radiation, x-rays, UV rays, mercury or the tar in cigarettes)
Cell Cycle A continuous sequence of cell growth and division: Interphase Mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telephase) Cytokinesis
Mitosis The process by which the duplicated contents of the cell's nucleus divide into two equal parts: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telephase
Cytokinesis The second stage of cell division (following mitosis): second stage of cell division. Involves division of the cytoplasm (and the organelles it contains) and usually begins before telophase is complete. Completes the process of cell division
Plant Cytokinesis The golgi body makes vesicles, they line up between the two nuclei & form a cell plate > new cell walls are made on each side of the cell plate divide the cytoplasm into two > a new cell membrane forms inside the cells
Animal Cytokinesis Cell membrane pinches in until the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells.
Interphase Cells do what they were designed to do, producing proteins. Also, DNA replicates for mitosis.
Prophase First stage of Mitosis. Sister chromatids condense and chromosomes become visible. Nucleolus disappears.
Metaphase The chromosomes are aligned across the center of the cell.
Anaphase The centromere splits apart and the chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the spindle fibers.
Telophase Two daughter nuclei are formed (Also, you can see the nuclear membrane)
Cell Specialization Similar cells are sorted according to the set of proteins they contain (which is determined by which set(s) of gene(s) are turned on). The proteins determine the function of the cell and the cell is then differentiated.
Cell differentiation A stage of development of a living organism during which specialized cells form.
Tissue A group of specialized cells. (i.e dermal, ground, vascular)
Organ A combination of several types of tissue working together to perform a specific function. (i.e roots, stems, leaves)
Meristematic Cells Undifferentiated cells that can form specialized cells.
Dermal Tissue Found on the outside of the plant, it covers the plant organs. Is a barrier between the plant and it’s external environment, protecting inner tissues from damage. Controls the exchange of water and gases between the plant and its environment.
Ground Tissue Perform photosynthesis, provide support for the plant body. Made up of storage cells,
Vascular Tissue Transports water, sugar and nutrients throughout the plant. (Xylem transports water and minerals, phloem transports sugars) Part of the leaf and plant structure.
Lateral Bud Dormant but has potential to produce new cells. If the Terminal bud is removed, the lateral bud will grow much bigger.
Terminal Bud The most active growing area. It gives off hormone called auxin which controls other growing buds
Meristem Located at the tips of roots, causing them to grow further.
Epidermis (Plant Leaf) Epidermal cells protect the leaf and secrete a waxy, waterproof cuticle that reduces evaporation. Sunlight can pass through for the photosynthetic cells below.
Mesophyll Arranged vertically, this layer contains: palisade cells, chloroplasts, active mitochondria, spongy parenchyma cells and open spaces to house the gases needed to produced by photosynthesis (H2O, O2, CO2) This layer is where photosynthesis takes place.
Lower leaf surface. Exchanges gases between inside and outside the leaf (allows O2 to leave and CO2 to enter) The stomata are pushed open when guard cells fill with water and they allow transpiration and evaporation of water. They don't allow water to escape from the plant.
Chloroplasts Photosynthesis cells that absorb sunlight, co2 and h2o from the soil to produce o2 and glucose. They can change shape and location to increase sunlight consumption and they contain sacs , which contain chlorophyll, the light trapping molecule.
Veins Both xylem and phloem together are arranged as vascular bundles that form veins for providing every cell in the leaf with water and nutrients.
Vascular Bundles Bundles of Xylem and Phloem.
Xylem Delivers water throughout the cell. They form long tubular vessels as they grow. When they die, their thick walls remain forming long, fibrous pipes through which water flows. They are strengthened with ligin (a hard substance)
Phloem Picks up sugars that have been produced and delivers them. They are living cells with cytoplasm, are porous to allow for the exchange of materials between neighbouring cells. They resemble vertically stacked tubes.
Taproot One main root that grows larger and thicker than the rest and allows the plant to reach far underground for water. It anchors the plant firmly into the ground.
Fibrous Root Has root branches that are roughly the same size. Spread out horizontally near the surface of the soil to provide plant with large surface area from which to draw water. They stabilize the soil, prevent soil erosion and mudslides.
Transpiration The evaporation of water from leaves. Water evaporates when stomates open (allowing CO2 to enter).
Root Pressure Created when transpiration is low and soil is moist - mineral concentration increases in xylem, increases osmotic pressure for water to diffuse into the xylem.
Osmosis Movement of solvents into a region of higher solute concentration replicates DNA and prepares the cell for division.
Cohesion Sticks to itself
Adhesion Sticks to other materials
Water Movement (Step 1) Root absorbs water and minerals from soil through osmosis. (help from root hairs and root structure)
Water Movement (Step 2) Root pressure and transpiration causes water to move up the xylem vessels.
Water Movement (Step 3) Xylem stops in the leaves where liquid water turns into water vapour in the spongy parenchyma cells.
Water Movement (Step 4) Two options: (1) Water is used as a reactant in photosynthesis OR (2) Transpiration.
Created by: smileyface.ps