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Praxis II Biology

Study that seeks to organize living things into groups based on morphology and genetics Taxonomy
Founding father of morphology taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus
What are the three domains? Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukaryota
What are the four kingdoms of the domain Eukaryota? Plantae, Animalia, Protista, Fungi
What are the nine phyla within the kingdom Animalia? Porifera (sponges), Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydra), Platyhelminthes (flat worms), Nematoda (round worms), Mollusca (snails, clams, squid), Annelida (segmented worms), Arthropoda (crabs, spiders, insects), Echinodermata (sea stars), Chordata
Vertebrates are within which subphyla of Chordata? Vertebrata
Vertebrata is divided into what two superclasses? Aganatha (jawless animals) and Gnathostomata (jawed animals)
What are Chondrichthyes? Fish with cartilaginous endoskeleton (sharks, rayes)
What are Osteichthyes? Fish with a bony skeleton (herring, carp, tuna)
Which animals have amniotic eggs? Amphibians (salamanders, frogs)
What are vascular plants? Tracheophytes; have tissues organized to conduct food and water throughout plant; those that produce seeds and those that don't
What are nonvascular plants? Bryophytes (mosses); no special tissue for conducting food and water; no seeds or flowers; short
What are angiosperms? Flowering plants; flowers as reproductive organs
What are gymnosperms? Non-flowering plants; conifers (cone-bearers) and cycads
Plants that survive only one growing season Annuals
Plants that survive two growing seasons Biennials
Plants that grow year after year Perennials
Matter is made up of these basic substances, which cannot be broken down to any other substance Elements
Simplest unit of an element Atom
An atom's nucleus contains what? Protons and neutrons
The atomic number corresponds to what? # of protons
In an uncharged atom, the # of protons... Equals the # of electrons
Which energy level of an atom has the least energy? The level closest to the nucleus
Plant cells have these 3 additional organelles Cell wall (support and rigidity), central vacuole (water and food storage), chloroplasts (photosynthesis)
Photosynthesis occurs in these plants organelles Chloroplasts, which contain the pigment chlorophyll. The body (stroma) contains the grana, which is where photosynthesis occurs
Protein molecules that act as catalysts for organic reactions by lowering the activation energy Enzymes
Non-protein substance that may be required in some enzymatic reactions Cofactor
Two types of cofactors? Inorganic (metal ions) and organic (coenzymes; vitamins)
Bound to the enzyme and facilitate enzymatic reactions Prosthetic groups
Process by which cells build molecules and store energy in the form of chemical bonds Anabolism
Process of breaking down molecules and releasing stored energy Catabolism
The two phases of photosynthesis Light reaction (photolysis) and the dark reaction (CO2 fixation)
Light reaction (photolysis) Chlorophyll absorbs photon and is excited to higher energy state; H20 broken down; oxygen combines to form O2 and is released
Dark reaction (CO2 fixation) Requires hydrogen and ATP from photolysis; six CO2 molecules are combined with hydrogen to form glucose
End products of glycolysis? 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2 H (NADH)
End products of Krebs cycle? 2 ATP, H, electrons
End products of electron transport chain? 32 ATP, H2O
Anaerobic respiration following glycolysis? Fermentation; creates lactic acid or ethyl alcohol; not very efficient (only 2 ATP)
Genes that code proteins that form organs and structural characteristics Structural genes
Genes that code proteins that determine functional or physiological events, such as growth Regulatory genes
Animal kingdom divided into these two broad categories Invertebrates and vertebrates
True/false: There are more species of invertebrates than vertebrates True
Consists of a thin cell layer; skin and intestines Epithelial tissue
Covers internal organs and composes ligaments and tendons Connective tissue
Found in the skeleton and provides support and protection for internal organs Bone tissue
Reduces friction between bones Cartilage tissue
Consists of several cell types in a fluid called plasma Blood tissue
Process of gamete formation Gametogenesis
Process of sperm formation Spermatogenesis; diploid primary spermatocytes formed from spermatogonia -> secondary spermatocytes -> haploid spermatids -> sperm cells
Process of egg formation Oogenesis; primary oocytes -> secondary oocyte and polar body -> haploid egg cell
Stages of human development Zygote -> morula -> blastula -> gastrula
Process of forming the three germ layers of an embryo Gastrulation
What are the three germ layers? Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
Germ layer that becomes the skin, endocrine glands, and nervous system Ectoderm
Germ layer that becomes the gut lining Endoderm
Germ layer that forms muscles and organs of the skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, reproductive, and excretory systems Mesoderm
Membrane that functions in regulating the passage of gases and water from the embryo to its surrounding environment Chorion
Fluid-filled sac that cushions the embryo Amnion (with amniotic fluid)
Membrane that becomes part of the umbilical cord that functions to exchange gases and nutrients between the embryo and mother Allantois
Membrane that becomes part of the umbilical cord and stores nutrients for the embryo (but not in mammals) Yolk sac membrane (with yolk sac)
The connection between the mother and embryo; site of transfer for nutrients, water, and wastes Placenta
Asexual reproduction that doesn't require fertilization by males in order for formation of an embryo Parthenogenesis
The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment Ecology
Part of the earth that contains all living things Biosphere
Total number of a single species of organism in a given ecosystem Population
Populations that interact with each other in an ecosystem Community
Physical place where a species lives Habitat
The role an organism plays in the ecosystem Niche
What is the greatest annual use of freshwater globally? Agriculture
Brain region involved with motor control (coordination, precision, timing) Cerebellum
Brain region involved with intelligence, personality, planning, and organization Cerebrum
Brain region responsible for autonomic functions (breathing, heart rate) Medulla oblongata
Scientist who advanced microscopy by discovering bacteria and protists von Leeuwenhoek
Male plant reproductive organ Stamen
Female plant reproductive organ Carpel/pistil
Why should Al cans be recycled? High energy cost of processing Al ore
Random change in allele frequencies that can lead to the loss of some alleles in a population Genetic drift
Where is mRNA processed? Nucleus
How efficient is photosynthesis in converting light energy to chemical energy? 1%
Separation of first two blastomeres results in what? Identical twins
How do you calculate percent error? Result-accepted value/accepted value *100
Type of selection that exists between certain inherited conditions and environmental pressures (i.e., sickle cell and malaria) Balanced polymorphism
True/false: Photorespiration doesn't produce ATP True
Conversion of nitrate, NO3, to atmospheric nitrogen, N2 Denitrification
Addition/deletion of one nucleotide of a gene Frameshift mutation
Conditioned stimulus (bell) signals occurrence of unconditioned stimulus (salivation for food); Pavlov Classical conditioning
Behavior is modified by consequences (punishment, reward); Skinner Operant conditioning
Species not closely related but come to have similar morphology due to similar habitats/niches Convergent evolution
Provides the strongest evidence for evolution Fossil record
True/false: Phospholipids don't readily dissolve in water True
What is the primary cause of extinction today? Habitat loss
How does Fragile X Syndrome arise? Repeats of a specific codon
An essential plant nutrient because it is a component of chlorophyll Magnesium
An animal that maintains stable internal body temperature regardless of external environment Homeothermic animal
Contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the egg Acrosome
Seed leaves that store nutrients for plant embryo Cotyledons
True/false: Eukaryotic cells do not have pili True
Plant hormone associated with ripening of fruit Ethylene
Primary pollutant responsible for acid precipitation Sulfur dioxide
What gas has a stronger affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen? Carbon monoxide
Ocean bottom Benthic zone
Coral reef habitat and shallow waters over continental shelf Neritic zone
Triggers ovulation and follicle maturation LH hormone
What facilitates high metabolic rate? Four-chambered heart
Stages of embryonic development Morula, blastula, gastrula, neural crest
Pumps blood out of the heart Ventricle
Receives blood coming into the heart Atrium
Carry blood away from the heart Arteries
Carry blood to the heart Veins
How do birth control pills work? Inhibit release of LH and FSH from pituitary
Tissue of plant growth Meristem
Tissue that covers and protects plant; secretes cuticle Epidermis
Tissue that provides storage and photosynthesis Ground
Tissue for storage and support Vascular
Field that studies slight variations in individual sequences of DNA Bioinformatics
Mineral that aids in the opening and closing of stomata Potassium
Where does the light reaction (photolysis) happen? Grana
Where does the dark reaction (Calvin cycle/carbon fixation) happen? Stroma
What are the three domains? Archaea, Eukaryota, Eubacteria
What are the 4 kingdoms of Eukaryota? Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
What are vascular plants? Tracheophytes; have tissues for food and water transport; seeds (corns, roses) or no seeds (ferns)
What are nonvascular plants? Bryophytes; no special tissues for transport; no seeds; short (mosses)
Reproductive organ of angiosperm Flower
Where stem elongation occurs; composed of meristem tissue; contains terminal bud Shoot apex
Seed protection Fruit
Sites of photosynthesis Leaves
Roots that extend downward Primary roots
Lateral roots Secondary roots
Where new leaves emerge Lateral buds
Response of a plant to the environment Tropism (i.e., phototropism and geotropism)
Plant hormone that controls cell elongation Auxin
Plant hormone that causes stem elongation Gibberellin
Plant hormone that promotes cell division in growing tissue Cytokinin
Underground stem for food storage (potato, carrot, yam) Tuber
Haploid plant that produces gametes by mitosis Gametophyte
Diploid plant that produces spores by meiosis Sporophyte
Branched veins; 2 cotyledons; flowers in multiples of 4-5 Dicot
Parallel veins; 1 cotyledon; flowers in multiples of 3; corn Monocot
Proposed "acquired characteristics" theory Lamarck
Structural similarity that indicates common ancestry Homology
Structures with no apparent function (appendix) Vestigial structures
Transmits impulses from sensory receptor to brain and spinal cord Sensory neuron
Transmits impulses from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Motor neuron
Part of neuron that receives impulses Dendrite
Part of neuron that sends impulses Axon
What is gray matter? Cell bodies and synapses
What is white matter? Axons
Part of nervous system responsible for involuntary functions Autonomic nervous system
Two branches of autonomic nervous system Sympathetic and parasympathetic
The center of the autonomic nervous system Hypothalamus
Difference between insulin and glucagon? Insulin decreases blood glucose levels; glucagon increases blood glucose levels
System of glands that secrete hormones that regulate body's activities Endocrine system
Primitive support column for embryo until it is replaced by spinal column Notochord
Central cavity of gastrula; becomes digestive cavity Archenteron
Connects placenta to fetus Umbilical cord
Condition where females have only one X Turner syndrome
Condition where males have more than one X Klinefelters syndrome
Total of all the genes in a population at a given time Gene pool
Scientist who studied Drosophila; gene mapping; X-linked genes Thomas Hunt Morgan
Smallest part of an element Atom
Substance made of one kind of atom; can't be broken down Element
Two or more atoms covalently bonded (i.e., O2) Molecule
Two or more elements chemically combined (i.e., HCl) Compound
Energy source with the ratio of 1 C: 2 H: 1 O Carbohydrate
Made of glycerol and fatty acids Lipids
Composed of a base, sugar, and phosphate group Nucleotide
What is a purine? Two rings; A, G
What is a pyrimidine? One ring; T, C, U
Naturally occurring element important in human health (i.e., Na, Cl, K, Ca) Mineral
Era where the first mammals appeared Triassic
Digestive organs is broken into these two groups Alimentary canal (GI tract) and accessory organs
What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain? Oxygen
Anton von Leeuwenhoek Advanced the field of microscopy by discovering bacteria and protists
Robert Hooke First used the term "cell" after viewing cork under the microscope
Schwann, Schleiden, and Virchow Scientists who came up with the "Cell Theory"
Hemolymph is found where? In arthropods with an open circulatory system
How do arthropods eliminate waste? Malphigian tubules
Which is more abundant outside of the cell: Na or K? Na
Which is more abundant inside of the cell: Na or K? K
The outside of the cell is positive or negative? Positive
The inside of the cell is positive or negative? Negative
Myelin sheath is composed of what? Schwann cells
What are the two divisions of the PNS? Somatic (voluntary; muscles) and autonomic (involuntary; sympathetic and parasympathetic)
What brain region is involved in maintaining homeostasis (hormones, pituitary gland, electrolytes, and temperature)? Hypothalamus
Sites of gas exchange between blood and tissues Capillaries
Blood coming from tissues in veins is high/low in oxygen? Low; has delivered oxygen and picked up carbon dioxide
Blood going to tissues in arteries in high/low in oxygen? High
Which organ stores bile produced by the liver? Gallbladder
Where does most digestion and absorption take place? Small intestine
Where does water reabsorption take place? Colon
Three types of muscle Cardiac (involuntary), smooth (stomach, intestines, bladder; involuntary); skeletal (bones; voluntary)
In muscle, what makes up the sarcomeres? Actin and myosin
Polymers of sarcomeres Myofibrils
Polymers of microfibrils Muscle cells
When body temperature increases, what happens to blood vessels? Dilation so more heat can be lossed
When body temperature decreases, what happens to blood vessels? Constriction so heat can be conserved
What are the two main components of a blastula? Inner cell mass (embryo) and trophoblast (placenta)
In what cells do C4 plants capture carbon dioxide? Mesophyll cells
In what cells do C4 plants do carbon fixation? Bundle sheath cells
Created by: lam7288



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