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Nursing Skills Vocabulary

Acupressure uses gentle pressure at similar points on the body
Acupuncture complementary and alternative medicine therapy that stimulates certian points on a body by insertion of special needles to modify the perception of pain, normalize physologic functions, and to treat or prevent disease
Allopathic medicine Tradiotional or conventional Western medicine
Aromatherapy an alternative therapy that uses essential oils produced from plants to provide health benifits
Biofeedback a noninvasive method of determining a patients neuromuscular and autocnomic nervous system response by measuring body functions with the use of electronic or electromechanical equipment
Complimentary therapies therapies that are used in addition or as a complement to nontraditional therapies
Herbal therapy an alternative therapy that uses herbs to provide health benifits
Holistic nursing a system of of comprehensive or total patient care that considers the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of the person
Imagery visulation techniques to create mental images to evoke physical changes in the body, improve perceivedd well-being, and enhance self-awarness
Reflexology a form of complementary and alternative medicine based on the premise that zones and reflexes in different parts of the body correspond to all parts, glands, and organs of the entire body
Relaxation teh state of generalized decreased cognitive, physiologic, or behavioral arousal
Therapeutic massage the manipulation of the soft tissues of the body to assist with healing
Yoga holistic system of mind-body connection that includes control of the body through correct posture and breathing, control of teh emotions and mind, and meditiation and contemplation
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) a substance produced in the mitochondria from neutrients and is capable of releasing energy that in turn enables the cell to work
Active transport the movement of materials across the membrane of a cell by means of chemical activity, which alllows the cell to admit larger molecules than would otherwise be able to enter
Passive transport the movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion; no cellular energy required
Isotonic having the same osmotic pressure as blood
Hypertonic a solution of higher osmotic pressure
Hypotonic a solution of lower osmotic pressure
Bicarbonate (HCO3) a main anion of the extracellular fluid
Culture a laboratory test involving cultivation of microorganisms or cells in a special growth medium
Cytology study of cells and their formation, origin, structure, biochemical activities, and pathology
Expectorate to eject mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting
Fixative any substance used to preserve gross or histologic specimens of tissue for examination
Hemoccult test detects hidden blood feces
Paracentesis a procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from the abdominal cavity
Sensitivity a laboratory method of determining the effectiveness of antibiotics
Infiltration the process whereby a fluid passes into the tissue
Lumen space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube such as a needle or catheter
Patency a condition of being opened and unblocked
Peripheral pertaining to the outside, surface, or surrounding area of an organ, other structure or fluid of vision
Vasocontriction when the lumen of the blood vessel narrows, thus hindering blood flow and resulting in less edema
Vasodilation when the lumen of the blood vessel widens, thus increasing the blood flow
Venipuncture most common medthod of drawing a blood sample, involving inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a large vein
Gauge a standard or scale of measurement
Percutaneous through the skin or mucus membrane
What are the three parts to blood? Red blood cells, White blood cells, and platelets
What are the two different types of white blood cells? Granular and Nongranular
What are the three different types of Granular cells? Basophil, Neurophil, and Eosinophil
What are the two different types of Nongranular cells? Lymphocytes and Monocytes
What are the different types of Lymphocytes? T cells and B cells
What is the normal pH range of blood? 7.35 to 7.45
What is the normal Na concentration of blood? 0.9%
Average adult blood volume 5 to 6 L or 10.5 to 12.5 pints
What are the functions of blood cells? transport(oxygen, nutrition, waste, hormones), regulate(pH and water concentrate), and protect(infection, blood loss)
Erythrocytes Red blood cells RBC's
What is the life span of a red blood cell? 120 days
Approximatey how many red blood cells are in the body? 5.5 million for male and 4.8 million for female
What is the job of Hemoglobin? carries oxygen
What id the normal level of Hemoglobin? 14-16 g/dL for male 12-16 for female
Where are red blood cells produced? Red bone marrow, vertebrae, ribs, sternem, proximal ends of humerous and femer
Erythropoiesis process of red blood cell production
Hematocrit measure of red blood cells
What is the normal percentage of hematocrit? 42-52% for male and 37-47% for female
Leukocytes White blood cells WBC's
What is the average number of white blood cells? 5,000 to 10,000 mm cubed
Where are granulocytes developed? Red bone marrow
What is the function of the neutrophils? phagocytosis 60-70%
What is the function of the basophils? nonspecific immune response to inflammation 1-4%
What is the function of eosinophils? alergic reactions and some parasetic worms 0.5 - 1%
What is the function of monocytes? remove dead bacteria and cells, second type of blood cell to arrive at the injury 2-6%
B cells memory cells identify and bind with specific antigens
T cells Killer cells
Thrombocytes smallest cell, no nuclei, last 5-9 days, produced in red bone marrow, assist in forming clots
Hemostasis process that arrest the flow of blood
Blood types A, B, AB, O
Universal donor O
Universal recipiante AB
Agglutination donor cells clump, occluding arteries
Hemolyzation cause RBC's to rupture
What are the three steps to clotting? Release of clotting factors, Formation of thrombin,Formation of fibrin trapping of RBCs to form clot
Plasma Clear, straw-colored liquid, A complex mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular waste
What are the functions of plasma? Transports nutrients, gases, and vitamins, Regulates fluid and electrolyte balance, Maintains favorable pH
Whole blood for hemorrage, hypovolemic shock
fresh whole blood for combat operations
Packed RBC's transfused when whole blood could result in circulatory overload, symptomatic anemia, hemoglobin <6 g/dL
Deglycerolized or washed RBC's for history of hypersnsitivity despite prophylaxis
Fresh frozen plasma FFP used in control of bleeding, replaces plasma without RBC's or platelets, warfarin overdose, given to patients with PT/PTT> 1.5 times normal
Plasma exchange used to treat autoimmune disease
Plasma expanders temporary volume epxansion
Granulocytes severe bone marrow depression
Platlets prevent or treat bleeding problems in surgical patients
Cryoprecipitate Hemophilia A, fibrinogen deficiency, Von Willebrands disease
Factor VIII treatment of hemophilia A
Factoor IX complex treatment of Hemophilia B (christmas disease)
Autologous transfusion patients own blood obtained and infused during surgery or after tramatic injury
minmum gauge a nurse must use to transfuse blood 20 gauge
What is the only solution blood can be infused with? 0.9% NS
Acute hemolytic transfused blood incompatible with patients blood
Febrile Non-hemolytic sensativit of recipient to WBC's and platlets in donors blood
Allergic reaction recipients allergy to donor antigen
Circulatory overload transfusion of excessive volume or excessive rate
Percentage of water in a body new born 70 - 80%, Adult 50 - 60%, older adult 45 - 50%
normal intake 2500mL/day
normal range of sodium 134 - 142 mEq/L
normal range of potassium 3.5 - 5 mEq/L
normal range of chloride 96-105 mEq/L
normal range of calcium 4.5 mEq/L
normal range for phosphorus 4 mEq/L
normal range for magnesium 1.5 - 2.4 mEq/L
normal range for Bicarbonate 22-24 mEq/L
Normal ABG's pH 7.35 - 7.45, PaCO2 35 - 45 mmHg, PO2 80 - 100mmHg, O2 95 -100%, HCO3 22-26 mEq/L
What are the three categories of CVAD's Percutaneous CVC's, Tunneled CVC's, Implanted infusion ports
Percutaneous Central Catheters inserted through the chest wall into subclavian vein, inserted through the neck into the internal jugular vein
Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters less risk that CVC's, 40 -65 cm in length, usually inserted in cephalic veins in upper arm, extends to the distal third of the superior vena cava, can remaine in place for 7 days to 3 months, single or double lumen
Tunneled CVC's implanted surgically through a subcutaneous tissue, creates space between catheter and vein
Implanted CVAD's are t surgically placed nder local anestesia, subsutaneous tisse on upper chest wall, threaded into superior vena cava
how often do you flush ports? every 8 hours or IAW policy
What are the three categories for medication admissistration routes? Enteral, Percuteneous, Paranteral
Entral routes mouth, tubal, rectum, vigina, urethra,
Percutaneous routes topical, eyes, ears, nose, vagina, mouth
Paranteral routes IM, SQ, ID, IV
How many mL can a tuberculin syringe hold? 1 mL
Length of needel for ID 3/8 - 5/8 inch
length of needle for SQ 1/2 - 5/8 inch
length of needle for insulin 5/16 - 1/2 inch
length of needle for IM 1 - 1 1/2 inch
Site for IM Vastus Lateralis(Anterioeral thigh), Ventrogluteal (greater trochanter, Anterior iliac spine, Iliac crest), Deltoid (acromion process of the scapula and the axillary fold)
Which do you prepare first? clear or cloudy clear
Z track method used for injectiong medications irritating to tissues, seals medication deep within muscle tissue, keeps tissue irritation to a minimum, prevents staining or tracking of medication into tissue
TPN given when oral or enteral support is impossible, used for long tearm therapy
PPN supplies basic nutritional building blocks, temporary means of delvering nutrients
how often do you check a peripheral/central line sit? every 4 hours
Who can declair a patient dead? physician
What agency requires a death certificate be prepared for each person that dies? Local Health Department
When do you leave all the tubes inside the recently passed patient? when there is to be an autopsy
Created by: fudhatgirl99