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cardio - hematology

test 2

What is the underlying cause of the clinical manifestations of anemia? Hypoxia
What is used as the primary measurement of the severity of anemia? Hemoglobin levels (Hgb) Mild-10-14 Moderate-6-10 Severe-less than 6 .
What are the three main causes of anemias caused by decreased erythrocyte production? -Less hemoglobin is made (iron-deficiency, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemias) -defective DNA synthesis in RBCs (usually nutritional deficiency of B12 or folic acid). Megaloblastic anemias -low numbers of erythrocyte precursors (aplastic anemia, chroni
What is the most common, chronic hematologic disorders in the world? Iron-deficiency anemia
Who is most susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia? (3) -the very young -those with poor diets -women in their reproductive years
What hematologic disorder can develop from disease or removal of the duodenum? Anemia, namely iron-deficiency anemia...this is where dietary iron is absorbed
What is the major cause of iron deficiency anemia in adults? GI (ulcers, diverticuli, gastritis, etc.) or GU bleeds (menstruation)
What are the symptoms associated with iron-deficiency anemia? Pallor, glossitis, cheilitis (lips inflammation), headache, parathesias, burning tongue
Which type of iron supplements are best for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia, enteric coated/sustained release or uncoated? Uncoated, if it's delayed release it is digested in the wrong place for optimal absorption
What can enhance absorption of an iron supplement? Taking one hour before meals, with orange juice
Which type of iron is best absorbed, ferrous sulfate or ferrous gluconate? Ferrous sulfate
For a patient who is on iron supplements, what else should they be instructed to take? Stool softeners or laxatives
What are the special considerations and instructions for the administration of parenteral iron? It can be given IM or IV. Separate needles are used for withdrawing it and injecting it, and 0.5 mL of air should remain in the syringe to clear the iron completely out. No more than 2 mL per injection, use Z track, no massage afterwards. upper q of butt
How long after hemoglobin levels return to normal should a patient with iron-deficiency anemia continue to take iron? 2-3 months
When should a patient be administered parenteral iron? If they have a malabsorption syndrome, intolerance of oral iron, need beyond oral limits or are non-compliant in oral therapy
_________ is a group of disease that have an autosomal recessive genetic basis involving inadequate production of normal hemoglobin and hemolysis. Thalassemia
What ethnicities or areas of origin are prone to developing Thalassemia? Middle Eastern, Asia, Africa
What is the difference between thalassemia minor and thalassemia major? Minor-heterozygous expression, milder form. Major: Homozygous genes, severe
What is the clinical maifestation of Thalassemia major? Physical and mental retardation, pallor, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, jaundice, thickened cranial and maxillary cavities.
What is the clinical manifestation of Thalassemia minor? Mild to moderate anemia with microcytosis (small cells) and hypochromia (pale cells)
How is Thalassemia major treated? Symptoms are managed with transfusions and IV infusions of a chelating agent that binds to iron (deferoxamine/Desferal), possibly a splenectomy.
____________ are a group of disorders caused by impaired DNA synthesis and is characterized by the presence of large RBCs. Megaloblastic anemias
What are the two most common forms of megaloblastic anemia? Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency and folic acid deficiency.
What is erythroleukemia? A malignant blood disorder characterized by a proliferation of erythropoietic cells in bone marrow. It causes megaloblastic anemia.
What is intrinsic factor (IF) and where is it secreted? It is a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12 (Cobalamin). It is secreted in the gastric mucosa by the parietal cells (distal ileum = duodenum and jejunum)
What is the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency? Pernicious anemia
When does pernicious anemia typically develop? Between the ages of 40-60, it is usually diagnosed at age 60.
What ethinicities are most likely to develop pernicious anemia? People of Scandinavian descent or Africa Americans. The condition is more severe in African Americans, begins earlier, and most often in women.
What types of medications can cause a B12/cobalamin deficiency? Long term use of H2-histamine receptor blockers.
What are the symptoms of a B12/cobalamin deficiency? Sore tongue, anorexia, n/v, abdominal pain, weakness, paresthesias, reduced vibratory and position senses, ataxia, impaired thought processes ranging from confusion to dementia.
What tests are used to diagnose pernicious anemia? Schillings test-radioactive cobalamin or IV admin of IF
How is cobalamin deficiency treated? Cyanocobalamin or hydroxycobalamin (IV), or Nascobal
What are the common causes of folic acid deficiency (which leads to megaloblastic anemia)? Poor diet, malabsorption disorders (especially small bowel), medications, alcohol abuse, anorexia, and from hemdialysis.
How is a cobalamin deficiency differentiated from a folic acid deficiency since the symptoms are very similar? Cobalamin deficiency presents with neuro systems, whereas folic acid deficiency does not
What medications can cause a folic acid deficiency? Methotrexate, phenobarbital, Dilantin
How is anemia of chronic disease differentiated from other anemias? Serum levels of ferritin are elevated and iron stores are increased, the RBC are normocytic, normochromic, and hypoproliferative
What medications are given to patients with renal disease to treat the associated anemia? Epogen, Procrit, Darbepoeitin (Aranesp)
__________ anemia is a disease in which the patient has peripheral blood pancytopenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Aplastic anemia
What type of anemia are antithymocyte globulin (ATG), hematopoeitic stem cell transplant (HSCT)and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) used to treat? Aplastic anemia Note: HSCT is generally used for people under 45 & ATG or Cytoxan is generally for people over 45
_________ anemia occurs when the destruction of RBCs occurs at a rate that outpaces the production of RBCs. Hemolytic anemia
Which types of hemolytic anemias, intrinsic or extrinsic, are hereditary? Intrinsic
Hemolytic anemias can be classified as intravascular or extravascular. Intravascular means RBCs are destroyed in the _________. Extravascular means RBCs are Intravascular= circulation Extravascular= liver, spleen, or bone marrow
What is the major concern in all hemolytic anemias? Monitoring and ensuring kidney function
What is the major triggering factoring for a sickle cell episode? Any event that causes hypoxia, typically an infection
Created by: rkasiejka