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Cells and Heredity

Vocab for Chapter 1

cells Form the parts of an organism and carry out all of an organism's processes, or functions.
microscope Is an instrument that makes small objects look larger.
cell theory Is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
organelles Tiny cel structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
cell wall Is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
cell membrane Is a thin layer of living material that controls what substances come into and our of the cell.
nuclues Acts as the "brain" of the cell.
cytoplasm Is a clear, thick, gel-like fluid that is living and is constantly moving.
mitochondria Is a rod-shaped structure that stores the cells energy in it and converts the energy into food molecules so the cell can use the food molecules to carry out its functions.
endoplasmic reticulum Is a maze of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
ribosomes Are small, grain like bodies that are attached to the sides of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi body Are the cells mail room.
chlorplasts They capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
vacuole Is a water-filled sac that is the storage are for the cell.
lysosme Are small round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
elements Is any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
compound Is when two or more elements combine chemically.
carbohydrate Is an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen .
lipids Are energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
proteins Are large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur.
amino acids Protein molecules are made up of these small molecules.
enzyme Is a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
nucleic acids Are very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
DNA Is the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
RNA Plays a important role in the production of proteins.
selectively permeable Which means some substances can pass through the membrane while others cannot.
diffusion Is the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
osmosis Is the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
passive transport The movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy.
active transport Is the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy.
Created by: brendanlittle