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Japanese E-2 CH11 Gr

Japanese E-2 CH11 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Expressing resultant state て-form + いる for verbs expressing wearing clothes or accessories. Also for verbs that indicate an instataneous change of state or transfer.
Expressing ongoing action, construction て-form + いる
Expressing ongoing action, explanation expresses ongoing action for certain action verbs that indicate activities that take place for a period of time.
Expressing ongoing action, examples eating, drinking, raining, reading, wind blowing, etc.
て-form + いる, common usage modication often shortened to て-form + る in conversation (both casual and formal)
Expressing habitual action, explanation Many verbs, including action verbs or change-of-state verbs, can be used to express habitual action with the verb て-form + いる
Expressing habitual action, example よくジャケットをきている。
Plain past form, compatible structures, examples ので, ~んです, から and けど, とおもう, and noun modification.
Plain past affirmative form, verbs Take て-form and replace て with た (or だ)
Plain past affirmative form, い-adjectives, affirmative かった instead of い.
Plain past affirmative form, い-adjectives, affirmative, comparison to polite past affirmative form です removed from かったです ending. (both replace い)
Plain past affirmative form, な-adjectives, affirmative add だった after the adjective
Plain past affirmative form, な-adjectives, affirmative, comparison to plain present affirmative form だ becomes だった
Plain past affirmative form, noun + copula the same as な adjectives
Plain past negative form replace the plain present negative ending, ない, with なかった
Plain forms in casual conversation, uses, social context among close friends and family members because indicates closeness, intimacy, and carefree attitudes. Can be used by superiors toward social inferiors to show close carefree attitudes.
Polite forms in conversation, uses, social context indicates awareness of the listener's presence and intends to main a proper social distance. Use for someone with a higher social status or who is much older, in order to show respect. Indicates awareness of social different and that not true equals.
Choosing between plain form and polite form, general rule Depends on the speaker's perception about his/her social relationship with his/her interlocutor.
Choosing between plain form and polite form, another example situation Very common for two people ofthe same age group to start a conversation with polite form but switch to plain form as the conversation progresses.
うん casual form of はい or ええ
ううん casual form of いいえ
Particles often ommitted in conversations は, が, を
Questions in casual conversation, question particle か is often ommitted. A rising inotation is used toward the end of the question instead.
Questions in casual conversation, written records ? will be written instead of か
Questions in casual conversation, copula verbs and な-adjectives だ from copula verbs and な-adjectives also deleted in questions.
Statements in casual conversations, copula verbs and な-adjectives in sentences terminating in ね and よ deleting だ makes the speech some feminine
んです plain form んだ or の.
んです plain form, questions の is usually used, not んだ
~てください, casual conversation version ~て
い-adjectives, adverbial form く-form
な-adjectives, adverbial form add に after the adjective
Adverbial form usage used to modify a verb indicating how an action takes place
Adverbial forms, expressing changes of state or outcome adverbial form + する and adverbial form + なる
Adverbial forms, expressing changes of state or outcome, nouns nouns can be made into adverbs like な-adjectives
Adverbial form + する to make something/someone (into) ~
Adverbial form + なる to become ~
Expressing uncertainty using ~でしょう, ~かもしれない, and ~かな, verb form plain form
Expressing uncertainty using ~でしょう, ~かもしれない, and ~かな, い-adjective form plain form
Expressing uncertainty using ~でしょう, ~かもしれない, and ~かな, な-adjective and noun + copula form plain form, but without だ
でしょう expresses a probability of probably to must be/must have been. Can be used for future or past events or actions.
~でしょう, a first usage commonly used in weather forecasts
~でしょう, a second usage used in casual situations with a rising intonation to ask for confirmation
~でしょうか a way to ask a question that is more polite than ですか
~でしょう, a third usage used with たぶん
たぶん perhaps
でしょう, plain form だっろ
~だっろか can be interpreted as a self-direction question. でしょうか, on the other hand, is always interpretated as a polite question
かもしれない Might. Expresses a probablity or conjecture of 50% or lower. Like でしょう, it can also be used for future or past events or actions.
かな I wonder. Speaker asking himself or herself about something. Cannot be used to speak about other people. Present tense only. Can only be used by the speaker.
かな, politeness Do not "use" with "superiors," because "fairly informal." Cannot be used in a 'straightforward question like ~でしょうか, but can be used to solicit the listener's answer indirectly.'
かしら feminine version of かな
Created by: ncommons