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Weathering/Soil

TermDefinition
weathering the process that breaks down rock and other substance of Earth's surface
erosion the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity
uniformitarianism the principle that states the same processes that operate today also operated in the past
mechanical weathering the type of weathering in which rick in physically broken into smaller pieces
abrasion refers tot he grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, wind, ice, or gravity
ice wedging the repeated freezing and thawing of water which results in the widening of cracks in rocks
chemical weathering the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
oxidation a process in which iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water (causes rust)
permeable rock that is full of tiny air spaces which allow water to seep into it
soil the loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
bedrock the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
humus a dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay
fertility a measure of how well the soil supports plant growth
loam soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
soil horizon a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
topsoil a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals
subsoil usually consists of clay and other particles washed down from the A horizon, but little humus
litter the loose layer of leaves that forms on top of the soil
decomposer organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller prices and digest them with chemicals
erosion the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another
sediment broken down pieces of rock moved by erosion
deposition when the sediments carried by erosion are laid down in a new location
gravity the force that moves rock and other material downhill
mass movement any one of several processes that move sediment downhill
landslide the most destructive type of mass movement which occurs when rock and soil slide quickly down a steep slope
mudflow the rapid downhill movement of a mixture of water, rock, and soil
slump a mass of rock and soil slip suddenly downhill in one large mass
creep very slow downhill movement of rock and soil
Created by: sdix