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Biology HSA Q1/Q2

Cells & Biochemistry

cells basic building blocks of life
unicellular organisms made up of one cell
multicellular organisms made up of more than one cell
tissues group of cells organized to perform a function in a multicellular organisms
organ a group of related tissues
organ system organs working together to perform a set of related tasks
carbohydrates organic molecules that provide quick energy; from pasta, breads, and fruits
monosaccharides building blocks of carbohydrates
cellulose carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plant cells
proteins organic molecule that provide structure, regulate metabolic reactions, help cells move, and transport materials
amino acids building blocks of proteins
enzyme organic catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in living things; a type of protein
substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts
lipids organic molecules that do not dissolve in water; fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acids building blocks of lipids
nucleic acids organic molecules that store genetic information that is passed from generation to generation; DNA, RNA, and ATP
polarity this is due to the unequal sharing of electrons in the water molecule, resulting a slightly negative oxygen and slightly positive hydrogen
solvent a substance in which other substances can be dissolved; water is the best at this
density the measure of a substance's mass divided by its volume; water 1.00 kg/L
vitamins organic substances necessary in very small amounts for important chemical reactions
minerals inorganic substances used to make certain body structures and substance; for normal nerve and muscle function; not produced by living organisms and must be replaced daily
vitamin C vitamin important in wound healing
vitamin D vitamin important in bone health
vitamin K vitamin important in blood clotting
vitamin A vitamin important in night vision
nucleus control center of cell; where chromosomes are found
ribosomes sites of protein synthesis; may be attached to ER or float freely in cytoplasm
ER a system of membranes and sacs that act like a highway along which molecules move from one part of a cell to another
Golgi apparatus a system of membranes that modifies and refines proteins, getting them ready for use
mitochondria sites of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compounds into ATP; where cellular respiration occurs
lysosomes organelle that acts like the cell's digestive system; breaks down old cell parts, cleans up cell
cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell; is semipermeable
semipermeable some substances can pass through easily whereas others cannot
cell wall rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells; made of cellulose
vacuole fluid-filled organelle that stores enzymes, wastes, water, and nutrients in plant cells
chloroplast site of photosynthesis
diffusion the movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
osmosis diffusion of water
passive transport the movement of materials into or out of a cell without the use of energy
active transport the movement of materials into or out of a cell with the use of energy; generally moves against the concentration gradient
concentration gradient the difference in concentration of particles between two side-by-side regions
vascular system system used by plants to move materials around the plant; xylem & phloem
Created by: plaun