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Biology HSA Q3

Heredity

TermDefinition
chromosomes store genetic information in the nucleus; made of DNA and proteins
centromere structure that holds two sister chromatids together
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic material
sex chromosomes chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism and may carry some genes for other characteristics
autosomes chromosomes that do not determine gender
gene the section of a chromosome that codes for a single trait
alleles different forms of a gene for a single trait
dominant when two different alleles for a trait are inherited, this one is the one that shows up
recessive when two different alleles for a trait are inherited, this alleles is not expressed
homozygous organism that has two dominant or two recessive alleles for a trait
heterozygous organism that has one dominant and one recessive allele for a trait
genotype the alleles or genes that an organism inherits from its parent
phenotype the form or physical expression of the genes
Punnett square a chart that shows the possible genotypes of offspring
probability the mathematical chance that an event will occur; Punnett squares are based on this chance
sex-linked traits genes for this kind of trait are carried on sex chromosomes
pedigree a family record that shows which members inherit a specific trait over several generations
nucleotide subunit that makes up DNA and RNA; made of a phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogen base
replication the process of copying DNA during cell division
transcription process in which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA; happens in the nucleus
messenger RNA type of RNA that carries the instructions from DNA in a gene to the ribosome
codons sequences of three nucleotides that code for a particular amino acid
translation the information from mRNA is decoded and used to arrange amino acids; at the ribosomes
transfer RNA RNA that carries the amino acids to the ribosomes
ribosomal RNA RNA that is a part of the structure of the ribosome
protein synthesis the entire process of constructing proteins
mutation a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
somatic mutations a type of mutation that occurs in an organism's body cells
germinal mutations a type of mutation that occurs in gametes; can be passed to offspring
genetic engineering the process of controlling genes for practical purposes
recombinant DNA DNA made from two or more different organisms
gene splicing the process of inserting genes from one organisms into the genes of another organism
cloning the process through which an exact copy of a cell or organism is produced
Created by: plaun
 

 



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