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Legal Psyc 4

Identifying the Perpetrator

QuestionAnswer
Eyewitnesses made false identification in __ to __% of DNA exonerations 80-90%
What three places can false identifications occur? Encoding, storage or retrieval
Is encoding an estimator or system variable? Estimator
Is storage an estimator or system variable? Estimator
Is Retrieval an estimator or system variable? System
Any mistake that an eyewitness makes that is due to their encoding or storage is called? An estimator variable
What does this refer to? "factors within the witness" Witness factors
Estimator variables can be divided up into six categories these are: ______ witness factor (age), ______ witness factor (tiredness), _____ target factor (tattoos), ______ target factor (disguises), ________ factors (visibility) and _______ factors (delay) stable, malleable, stable, malleable, environmental, post-event factors
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? " alcohol consumption" Malleable witness factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "changing appearance between event and recognition test" Malleable Target factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "presence of weapon" Environmental factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "Ethnicity of witnes" Stable witness factor and interacts with ethnicity of perpetrator. We have trouble distinguishing between ethnicity of a person who is a different ethnicity to us
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "tiredness" Malleable witness factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "facial distinctiveness" Stable target factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "light levels" environmental factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "exposure to misinformation" Post-event factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "visibility" Environmental factor
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "crime seriousness" Environmental factor - either expensive item or non-expensive item
What of the six estimator variable factors is this? "verbal over-shadowing" Post-event delay - if you do a line up after you verbally describe someone, you are not as good at the lineup because they will be trying to find features that they just described instead of looking at person as a whole
What are the four ways (system variables) that police elicit eyewitness identification with Verbal descriptions, Facial composites, Mugshot books, Lineups
Are verbale descriptions (system variable) useful? Why or why not? Not because they tend to be too brief and broad descriptions such as "he had dark hair" when lots of people have dark here so not very useful
What do verbal descriptions (system variable) often focus on? External features and other features that are easily changed such as hair, clothes.
What is wrong with verbal descriptions (system variable) if the witness provides highly detailed descriptions? The police will put a lot of weight on their subsequent visual identification because they think that they must have good memory because they gave good description
What are the 3 flaws of verbal descriptions? Not very useful as too brief and broad (he had dark hair), often focus on external features that can easily be changed (hair, clothes), if witness gives highly detailed description, police will put more weight on person they identify in photos
What is this? "if you do a line up after you verbally describe someone, you are not as good at the lineup because they will be trying to find features that they just described instead of looking at person as a whole" Verbale overshadowing - a post-event factor of the 6 estimator variable factors
There is no reliable association between the nature of the verbal description and subsequent ________ identification accuracy visual
Facial composites is when....? you are asked to recreate the persons appearance. Can use sketch artists, manual systems, computer systems
What are the three issues with facial composites? Consider the ease that composites are constructed - ease that witness can describe and recognise drawing, people are bad at remembering face details-even of their family, its at odds with the way we process and member faces-feature-based vs. as a whole
We dont actually divide up a face into eyes, nose etc. Instead we look at the interaction between everything - we aren't able to tell what was in our favourite curry. What is this relating to? How the construction of facial composites are at odds with the way in which we process and remember faces (feature-based vs. configural processing)
With facial compositions (system variable) more promise is shown by two things, what are they? Whole face processing where they are shown 6 faces, and choose one, then shown another 6 faces and choose one until you end up with 6 similar faces. And Caricatures where artists emphasise features - good because we store bits of face that are different
How can mugshot books (system variable) effect subsequent lineup identification? Because witness might actually recognise suspect from mugshot boko, not actually from crime event
There are two issues with mugshot books. What are they? In subsequent identification lineup, they may recognise suspect from mugshot book not from crime and that if they are told that all of them but one are already in prison, this lowers their threshold because they are in prison already so doesn't matter.
So with mugshot books, the knowledge that the photos are all of known offenders can decrease identification __________ threshold
The perpetrator is NOT always in the lineup, why? Because its the suspect that is in the lineup, and perhaps this suspect is not actually the perpetrator - maybe they are suspecting the wrong guy
What is the name of the people in the lineup other than the suspect? Foils/fillers that the police know to be innocent
"If investigators have accidently got a suspect who is actually innocent then everyone in lineup is innocent and so the right thing for the witness to do is to say that the perpetrator is not there". What does this refer to? Target absent lineup
"If they pick the suspect in the lineup". What does this refer to? Target present lineup
Even though witnesses are aware that the target may or may not be present in lineup, they are still r_________ to reject lineups. They think of it more as ____ choice test where correct answer is there - dont realise a suspect is only a _________. reluctant, multi, suspect
Target absent lineups lead to an increase in ______ ______? false alarms
With target absent lineups increasing false alarms, what can reduce this tendency? Instructions, but dont eliminate it
What does Target absent lineup refer to? If investigators have accidently got a suspect who is actually innocent then everyone in lineup is innocent and so the right thing for the witness to do is to say that the perpetrator is not there.
What does Target present lineup refer to? When they pick the suspect who is actually present in the lineup
How do witness tend to pick people from the lineup? They tend to pick on similarity to other foils, so make a relative jugement which is bad because then they choose who looks most SIMILAR not who looks exactly like the perpetrator
What leads to an increase in false alarms? Target absent lineups
One study looked at how effective instructions are about the lineups. What did they find? That most people still expected target to be present despite instructions otherwise. Most recalled the instructions correctly and 47% of incorrect witnesses said they would make same decision in real life.
What can we conclude about the study that looked at effectiveness of lineup instructions? That instructions are good but people take them with a grain of salf
Everyone is vulnerable to picking the wrong person out of lineups but ____________ are very vulnerable. They are more likely to pick people out even when the perpetrator is not there children
Describe the method of study that looked at children's lineup performance Police station visit.Confederate came in & asked for keys to cell, later kids asked to identify confederate. Varied lineup either target present or absent. Wild card (? card) so could still pick if didn't recognise any faces OR control (do confederate)
What was the wild card in the children's lineup study? And what was its purpose? Was a card with question mark on it so that if children dod not recognise any of the faces the didn't have to pick one, as they could pick the wild card instead
There were two manipulated variables with two levels each in the children's lineup study, what were they? Target present vs. target absent and Wild card (? card) vs. control (confederare not in lineup)
What were the results of the children's lineup study? The wild card option increased children's performance in target absent lineup but did not affect children's performance in the target present lineup (so didn't pick wile card when confederate was in lineup-so good thing as wile card didnt impact accuracy)
With the children's lineup study, in the wild card conditions, target absent and target present accuracy rates did or did not differ? Did not differ
There are three types of lineups (ways to present the suspect to the witness). What are these called? Live lineup, Simultaneous lineup, Sequential lineup
Do we normally use live lineups? Why or why not? No, because its too much work getting all the foils to come in all the time so just use photo lineups as they are much easier
Which type of lineup involves Relative judgement? Why? Simultaneous Lineups because you see all photos together so judge who looks MOST like the perpetrator
Which type of lineup involves Absolute judgment? Why? Sequential Lineups because they see photos one by one so cant judge who looks MOST like perpetrator
How are Sequential lineups well-conducted and badly conducted? Well-conducted if you are not shown the rest of the faces after you choose a face and badly conducted if you are allowed to flick back and forth after making decision or even before making decision
What type of lineups result in fewer identification lineups overall but fewer false alarms? Sequential lineups
NZ police use sequential lineups but...? let them go back and forth so pretty much simultaneous which is bad!
When choosing foils we have to choose ones similar to the suspect because....? We dont want the suspect to stand out, because we want the witness to be the only one that can pick it out, not the whole public
If the description of suspect mentions them not wearing a grey sweatshirt, then how should foils be dressed? All foils should be wearing the grey sweatshirt, not just the suspect
Sequential lineups result in fewer identifications overall but fewer ______ _______? false alarms
Foils that are too dissimilar may increase or decrease the chances of an innocent suspect being wrongly identified. What is the name of this effect? Increase, The BACK FIRE effect
If suspect is mentioned to be black and foils are all white while suspect is black how will this effect the lineup and what is the name of the effect? More likely that innocent suspect will be wrongly identified. This is called the Back Fire effect
Foils that are too dissimilar or similar? will confuse the witness and increase the chances of an innocent foil being being identified Similar
Foils that are too similar will confuse the witness and increase the chances of an innocent _____ being identified foil!! (not suspect!)
What constitutes 'optimal similarity'? (what are the two ways to pick our foils?) 1. Similarity to the witness's verbal description (everyone should have grey sweatshirts and hooded eyes), similarity to the suspect
Study investigated whether its better to have foils similar to witness's description of offender or similar to the suspect they have found. What were the manipulation groups? And what is the most important comparison(the one they were most interested in?) Target Present with description-matched foils, Target Absent with description-matched foils and Target Absent with SUSPECT-matched foils. Most interested in the last two
The results of the study that compared description-matched and suspect-matched in a target absent lineup found that there was or was not a lot of difference between the two? Was not a lot of difference (0.403 vs. 0.460
Can the police officer conducting the lineup influence the eyewitness's decision? Yes
What is it called when the police conducting the lineup influences the eyewitness's decision? Investigator Bias
What three things can police do to influence the witness's decision in a lineup? Verbal behaviour (take another look, and make sure thats the one", facial gestures (frowning and smiling), body movements (nodding and shaking head)
What type of investigator bias/influence is this? "frowning" facial gestures
What type of investigator bias/influence is this? "shaking" body movement
What type of investigator bias/influence is this? ""take another look and make sure thats the one" Verbal behaviour
What type of investigator bias/influence is this? "nodding" body movements
What type of investigator bias/influence is this? "smiling" facial gestures
Study tested investigators influence on witness's decision at lineup. What were the two conditions? Single blind condition (only witness is not aware of suspect's position in lineup) and Double blind condition (both witness and investigator are not aware of suspect's position in lineup) and Sequential and Simultaneous lineups
When lineup is double blind, the percentage is LESS for both sequential and simultaneous. What does this mean? That investigators had less influence on witness for both type sof lineups
When lineup is single blind, what type of lineup do investigator have more of an influence on? (sequential or simultaneous?) Sequential - because much easier to influence each photo one at a time and police may let them look at one photo longer than others, making witness think theres reason to look at photo longer whereas in Simult. they dont know which photo your looking at.
A lineup administrators knowledge of suspects position in the lineup can increase or decrease false identification rates in cases where the suspect is innocent. This is especially likely with what type of lineup? What type of lineup will safeguard this? increase, sequential, doubleblind
What does this refer to? "things might correlate in a causal manner might be things like how long you see the person for. This might correlate but not cause" Postdiction variables
What are the three Postdiction variables? Confidence, Responce Latency and Self-Reported Decision Process
The relationship between confidence and accuracy is a ___________ one controversial
For confidence, simple correlations tend to find either no relation or only a small positive relation. Research has reassessed the way we examine the relationship. What did someone come up with? The Confidence-Accuracy Calibration
What does this refer to? "if someone is 100% confident then we would expect them to be 100% accurate" The Confidence-Accuracy Calibration
If someone is 20% confident we expect them to be ___% accurate. What does this refer to? 20%, the Confidence-Accuracy Calibration
What does the actual Confidence-Accuracy Calibration show? is it what we would expect? Shows that people tend to be OVER-confident, so no, not what we expected
The actual Confidence-Accuracy Calibration shows that people tend to be _______-confident OVER
A problem with the Confidence accuracy relationship is that confidence tends to get _______ over time and over subsequent identifications. Give an example Stronger, in lineup they will say "i THINK thats him" and in court will say "im SURE thats him"
When people's confidence increases from in lineup "i think thats him" to in court room "im sure thats them" how do they often describe their confidence back when they did the lineup they think that they were SURE at the lineup even though they only THOUGHT
What does positive feed back do to our confidence. And when is this especially common? Tends to inflate retrospective reports of confidence and viewing conditions, especially when people were mistaken!! so bad as happens to people who are incorrect more
Response Latency is also a Postdiction variable and is when accurate witnesses may make their decisions in lineups more _______ than inaccurate witnesses quickly
10-12 seconds is referred to as the _______ number that accurate witness's make their decisions in in lineups. But research suggests that this number differs across different _______ conditions magic, viewing
Self-Reported Decision-Process is another __________ variable. Postdiction
Self-Reported Decision-Process. Witness's report their decision making process in different ways. For example "i just recognised him" vs. "i just narrowed it down and there he was". Which one is worse? The second one
What is a problem is associated with witnesses reporting their own decision making process (Self-Reported Decision Process)? Its prone to the same kinds of distortion as confidence
Created by: alicemcc33