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Legal Psyc 3

Interviewing Eyewitnesses

QuestionAnswer
Retrieval isn't perfect, not everything can be retrieved all the time. _____plays a large role in retrieval e.g. people do better in test if they take it where lectures held. If you ____ when you witness it, you'll remember it easier next time your drunk. CONTEXT, drunk
What someone remembers or reports may not actually come from their __________ due to things like the misinformation effect memory
There are three components of memory - encoding, storage and retrieval. What part do police have enormous amounts of influence on? Retrieval
There are three components of memory - encoding, storage and retrieval. What part do police have little or no influence on? Encoding
When should interviews be done in an investigation? Very early on, because helps to solve case, most crucial to be done at early phase of case.
What type of interviews advance the investigation immeasurably? "Good" interviews that get a lof of good information from the witness
What type of interviews contaminate the whole investigation? "Bad" interviews where police get wrong information and puts their investigation off course e.g. looking for white van because witness said they saw a white van
People have developed many interview protocols with the aim of maximizing the q________ and q_______ of eyewitness testimony. What are three examples of these protocols developed? Stepwise Interview Procedure, Cognitive Interview and NICHD Protocol
Which of the three developed interview protocols do New Zealand police use? Cognitive Interview
All three of the developed protocols (Stepwise Interview Procedure, Cognitive Interview and NICHD Protocol) agree on what? The four features/protocols of interviewing: 1. questioning style, 2. Rapport, 3. Clarification of Interview Rules, 4. Interview Objectivity.
The first interview protocol/feature that is important is.....? questioning style
Interview questions are best viewed as a hierarchy where as you get further interviewer puts more ______ into their mouths and more ______ errors are elicited. words, errors
What is the interview question style hierarchy? Open-ended questions --> Specific questions --> Forced choice questions --> Suggestive questions --> Leading questions
What type of questioning style is the most preferred and most accurate? Open-ended questions
Open-ended questions are very b________ questions which means you get more accurate information broad
How would you describe specific questions? What, where, when, why. "What were they wearing?"
What is an example of a forced choice question? What is wrong with this style of questioning? "Was it light or dark outside?", they are starting to put words into the witnesses mouth, giving the witness more information not the other way around so is bad.
What type of questioning style is this? "feed witness information that they just have to say yes or no to "did they have a gun?" Suggestive questions
How are open ended questions in terms of accuracy? They are the most accurate questioning style.
Which questioning style is the least preferable and least accurate? Leading questions
How would you describe suggestive questions? Questions that feed information that witness just has to say yes or no to "did they hava a gun?"
What questioning style is this an example of? "Isn't he?, "He was yelling, wasn't he?" Leading questions
As you move down the hierarchy of questioning styles, you get less of more detail/information? And what happens to the accuracy? Get more information but this information have more errors/ is less accurate
What do interviewing protocols think about free recall All agree that interviews should start with a prolonged "free recall" phase, in which the witness is asked to recall as much as he or she can remember
What is the "free recall" phase? When at the start of the interview, witnesses are asked to recall as much as they can remember
What do interviewers find difficult about the "free recall" phase at the start of interviews? Find it hard not to interrupt them
A study looked at the interruption of free recall by interviewers and found that? The mean length of uninterrupted free recall was only 7.2 seconds. This is bad!
Free recall is very important! What can ruined free recall? Interruption by interviewers
Study showed subjects automobile accident. Then asked questions "how fast were the cars going when they XXXX into each other?" What were the 5 word manipulations? Contacted, Hit, Bumped, Collided, Smashed
Study showed subjects automobile accident. Then asked questions "how fast were the cars going when they XXXX into each other?" What were the results? Subjects estimated speed of cars were dependent on the question wording - got much faster speed if "smashed" was used compared to "contacted" Also more likely to say that there was broken glass with "smashed" compared to "hit"
"Did you see a broken light" versus "did you see the broken light" Describe study involving these sentence Found that 'a' and 'the' influence answers where people mor elikely to say yes (agree) when 'the' (definite article) was used
What do indefinite and definite article refer to? Using the word "a" in sentence ("did you see a broken headlight") makes the object sound indefinite) BUT using the word "the" ("did you see the broken headlight") makes the object seem definite
Considerable effort has gone into identifying alternative questioning techniques to help witnesses to give more complete and accurate testimony without feeding information by accident. This research is most important for _______ _______? why? Child witnesses, because they generally give very little free recall and are highly susceptible
What study did they get results where reporting broken glass was related to the wording of the speed estimate question? The study where subjects viewed automobile incident and questions afterword manipulated words such as 'contacted, hit, bumped, collided, smached"
If you say "did you see the gun?" Children are more susceptible to say yes even when...? there was no gun
An interview technique that increases the amount of information provided WITHOUT compromising accuracy is known as what? The "gold standard" technique
Anatomically Detailed Dolls used to be used a lot when children weren't saying much. But no what do we know about using anatomical detailed dolls in interviews? That they are not so reliable
By using anatomical detailed dolls, what does this actually require from the children? (3 things) Understanding of dual representation (that the doll is representing them), Being able to map out past events onto dolls, stay on task and not drift into playing with the doll
Why is it bad for children to drift into playing with the anatomically detailed dolls? because children might experiment in their "play" with dolls and experimenter/interviewer might interpret that something dodgy happened
There are three unsupportive findings about anatomical detailed dolls being used in interview with child. What are they? Engage in more "play" and more fantasy details reported, more false reports of genital and anal toughing and exaggeration of innocuous touching and increase in errors and no increase in detail.
Describe the "gold standard" interviewing technique A technique that increases the amount of information provided without compromising accuracy
By the mid 1990's researchers and policy groups had arrived at the following conclusion abut use of anatomically detailed dolls? Thats children's interactions with dolls are not diagnostic of abuse - so should not be used for this purpose - for diagnosing abuse.
If interviewers should go ahead and use dolls, when should they be used and for what purpose? AFTER verbal reports of abuse and to clarify this verbal report if child's language is bad and you cant quite understand them
What age are the use of anatomically detailed dolls especially risky? Why? Children under 5 because of lack of language skills for example
Should anatomically detailed dolls be used for diagnosing abuse? NO why? Because studies have found unsupported findings: Engage in more "play" and more fantasy details reported, more false reports of genital and anal toughing and exaggeration of innocuous touching and increase in errors and no increase in detail.
One study looked at the influence of visual aids on participants free recall of a stimulated crime. What was manipulated in this study? Visual aid: did their own sketch of what happened, were provided with an accurate, sketch of the scene, were provided with a photo of scene or no visual aid (control)
One study looked at the influence of visual aids on participants free recall of a stimulated crime. What were the results? All types of visual aid increased both the AMOUNT and the ACCURACY of the information and decreased the proportion of subjective information by subjects of ALL ages and reduced errors made by CHILDREN
There are five reasons why visual aids might help in interviews. What are they? Write these out and memorise them Increases time spent in interview so higher chance of saying more, decreases social barriers, helps witness provide their own RETRIEVAL cues, helps witness to mentally reinstate context (encoding specificity principle) & influences interviewers behaviour
The second interview protocol/feature that is important is.....? Rapport: a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned
How does rapport between the interviewer and the witness help? It makes the witness more at ease and therefore are more likely to give more information especially if topic is sensitive or traumatic or they are fearful in reporting the incident.
When is rapport most helpful in eliciting information? When topic is sensitive, traumatic or they are fearful of reporting the incident
What is early rapport building between interviewer and witness linked to? Later interview performance
Study looked at the influence of rapport on the amount of information given in interview. How did they manipulate this rapport? Open-ended questions versus direct questions
Study looked at the influence of rapport on the amount of information given in interview. What did they find? That more rapport (open-ended questions) lead to twice as many words in response the the First Interview Question.
Improvement was maintained over subsequent open-ended questions. The way that rapport is built at start of interview influences how much ____________ witnesses gave at the end of interview information.
The third interview protocol/feature that is important is.....? Clarification of Interview Rules
With clarification of interview rules, how does an interview by police differ form an interview with doctor? Doctors normally drive the interview but police should be letting the witness drive the interview
We want witnesses to give a really big _____ _____ right from the start so that police way the recall as little as possible free recall
The fourth interview protocol/feature that is important is.....? Interviewer objectivity
What does interviewer objectivity refer to? Problems associated with interviewer bias 9not something they do purposefully)
There are three things associated with interviewer objectivity/bias. What are they? Shaping the witnesses reports (leading questions, suggestive questions), overlooking or ignoring relevant information, inaccuracy reporting interview contents
What one of the three things that associates with interview objectivity/bias is this? "when you look at what child actually said and at interviewer nots they are difference (not purposeful)" Inaccuracy reporting interview content
hat one of the three things that associates with interview objectivity/bias is this? "leading questions suggestive questions" Shaping witnesses reports
In the Multiple Suggestive Techniques study 5 problematic questioning techniques were identified in the McMartin case. What are they? Suggestive questions, referring to other people (that Joey said this), Positive and negative consequences (going to help kids), Asked and answered (no taking "no" for an answer) and Inviting speculation "what MIGHT have happened"
What does this refer to? "Problems associated with interviewer bias 9not something they do purposefully)" Interviewer objectivity
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "Are you going to be stupid or are you going to be smart and help the interviewer" Positive and Negative consequences
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "not taking no for an answer" Asked and Answered by interviewer
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "Did Ms Peggy take your clothes off? "Yeah" Suggestive questions
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "Saying that other kids have said stuff" Referring to other people
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "you are going to help these kids out" Positive and negative consequences
Which one of the 5 Multiple Suggestive Techniques is this? "who might have played the game?" Inviting Speculation
In a study this McMartin questioning "package" was compared with what? Suggestive questions alone
In a study this McMartin questioning "package" was compared with Suggestive questions alone. What were the results? The package (misleading questions) caused more "yes" (wrong) answers which resulted in false allegations and these "yes" answers to the misleading questions increased over the course of the interview
In conclusion, the McMartin package of misleading questions has a much greater detrimental effect than _____________ questions alone suggestive
What is still of great concern with interviewing witnesses? Studies yet to find reliable correlation betw. interviewer's KNOWLEDGE of appropriate questioning techniques & their actual INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES -> problem of people KNOWING what to do but not DOING it as its easier to say stuff, fill in silence.
Created by: alicemcc33