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UTA NURS 3481 Exam 1

UTA NURS 3481 Psych Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Compensation Attempting to make up for or offset deficiencies, either real or imagined by concentrating or developing other abilities
Conversion Symbolic expression of intrapsychic conflict expressed in physical symptoms
Denial Blocking out, or disowning painful thoughts or feelings
Displacement Feelings arc transferred, redirected, or discharged from the appropriate person or object to a less threatening person or object
Dissociation Separating and detaching an idea, situation, orrelationship from its emotional significance; helps individual put aside painful feelings and often leads to a temporary alteration of consciousness or identity
Identification Attempting to pattern or resemble the personality of an admired, idealized person
Introjection Acceptance of another's values and opinions as one's own
Projection Attributing one's own unacceptable feelings and thoughts to others
Rationalization Attempting to justify or modify unacceptable needs and feelings to the ego, in an effort to maintain self-respect and prevent guilt feelings
Reaction Formation Assuming altitudes and behaviors that one consciously rejects
Regression Retreating to an earlier, more comfortable level of adjustment
Repression An involuntary, automatic submerging of painful, unpleasant thoughts and feelings into the unconscious
Sublimation Diversion of unacceptable instinctual drives into personally and socially acceptable areas to help channel forbidden impulses into constructive activities
Suppression Intentional exclusion of forbidden ideas and anxiety producing situations from the conscious level; a voluntary forgetting and postponing mechanism
Undoing Actually or symbolically attempting to erase a previous consciously intolerable experience or action; an attempt to repair feelings and actions that have created guilt and anxiety
Acute dystonia Acute, often painful, sustained contraction of muscles, usually of the head and neck, which typically occur from 2 to 5 days after the introduction of antipsychotic medications. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Pseudoparkinsonism A medication-induced temporary constellation of symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease: tremor, reduced accessory movements, impaired gait, and stiffening of muscles. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 810)
Tardive dyskinesia A serious and irreversible side effect of the phenothiazines and related drugs; consists of involuntary tonic muscle spasms typically involving the tongue, fingers, toes, neck, trunk, or pelvis. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 814)
Akathisia Regular rhythmic movements, usually of the lower limbs; constant pacing may also be seen; often noticed in people taking antipsychotic medication. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Metabolic syndrome Weight gain, dyslipidemia, and altered glucose metabolism caused by atypical antipsychotic drugs. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 807)
Positive symptoms The presence of something that is not normally present (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, paranoia). (Varcarolis 2010, p. 809)
Negative symptoms The absence of something that should be present (e.g., apathy, lack of motivation, anhedonia, poor thought processes). (Varcarolis 2010, p. 808)
Anhedonia The inability to experience pleasure. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Anergia Lack of energy; passivity. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Avolition Lack of motivation. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 797)
Psychosis An extreme response to psychological or physical stressors that leads to pronounced distortion or disorganization of affective response, psychomotor function, and behavior. Reality testing is impaired, as evidenced by hallucinations or delusions.
Schizoaffective disorder A disorder that includes a mixture of schizophrenic and affective symptoms (i.e., alterations in mood as well as disturbances in thought); it is considered by some to be a severe form of bipolar disorder. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 812)
Command hallucinations “Voices” that direct the person to take action. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 799)
Hallucination A sense perception (seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, or touching) for which no external stimulus exists (e.g., hearing voices when none are present). (Varcarolis 2010, p. 804)
Illusion misperceptions or misinterpretations of a real experience (Varcarolis 2010, p. 315)
Delusion A false belief held to be true even with evidence to the contrary (e.g., the false belief that one is being singled out for harm by others). (Varcarolis 2010, p. 801)
Anosognosia A patient's inability to realize that he or she is ill; caused by the illness itself. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Clang association The meaningless rhyming of words, often in a forceful manner. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 799)
Echolalia Repeating of the last words spoken by another; mimicry or imitation of the speech of another person. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 802)
Echopraxia Mimicry or imitation of the movements of another person. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 802)
Ideas of Reference Delusion Giving personal significance to trivial events; perceiving events as relating to you when they are not (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Control Delusion Believing that another person, group of people, or external force controls thoughts, feelings, impulses, or behavior (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Persecution Delusion Believing that one is being singled out for harm by others; this belief often takes the form of a plot by people in power (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Gradeur Delusion Believing that one is a very powerful or important person (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Somatic Delusions Believing that the body is changing in an unusual way (e.g., rotting inside) (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Erotomanic Delusions Believing that another person desires you romantically (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Jealousy Delusions Believing that one's mate is unfaithful (Varcarolis 2010, p. 313)
Neologism A word a person makes up that has meaning only for that person; often part of a delusional system. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 808)
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) A rare and sometimes fatal reaction to high-potency neuroleptic drugs. Symptoms include muscle rigidity, fever, and elevated white blood cell count. It is thought to result from dopamine blockage at the basal ganglia and hypothalamus.
Word salad A mixture of words meaningless to the listener and to the speaker as well. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 816)
Axis I the collection of signs and symptoms that together constitute a particular disorder (e.g., schizophrenia) or a condition that may be a focus of treatment. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 13)
Axis II personality disorders and mental retardation. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 13)
Axis III general medical conditions believed to be relevant to the mental disorder in question. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 14)
Axis IV psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a mental disorder. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 14)
Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) An indication of the person's best level of psychological, social, and occupational functioning during the preceding year, rated on a scale of 1 to 100 (where 1 = persistent danger of severely hurting oneself or others, and 100 = superior functioning)
Physiological needs food, water, oxygen, elimination, rest, and sex)
Safety Needs security, protection, stability, structure, order, and limits)
Love and Belonging Needs affiliation, affectionate relationships, and love)
Esteem Needs self-esteem related to competency, achievement, and esteem from others)
Self-Actualization Needs becoming everything one is capable of)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs (in order) Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization, self-transcendent
Trust vs. mistrust Age: Infancy (0-1 1/2 yr); Task: Forming attachment to mother, which lays foundations for later trust in others (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Age: Early childhood (1 1/2-3 yr); Task: Gaining some basic control of self and environment (e.g., toilet training, exploration) (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Initiative vs. guilt Age: Late childhood (3-6 yr); Task: Becoming purposeful and directive (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Industry vs. inferiority Age: School age (6-12 yr); Task: Developing social, physical, and school skills (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Identity vs. role confusion Age: Adolscence (12-20 yr); Task: Making transition from childhood to adulthood; developing sense of identity (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Itimacy vs. isolation Age: Early adulthood (20-35 yr); Task: Establishing intimate bonds of love and friendship (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Generativity vs. self-absorption Age: Middle adulthood (35-65 yr); Task: Fulfilling life goals that involve family, career, and society; developing concerns that embrace future generations (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Integrity vs. despair Age: Later years (65 yr to death); Task: Looking back over one's life and accepting its meaning (Varcarolis 2010, p. 29)
Transference The experiencing of thoughts and feelings toward a person (often the therapist) that were originally held toward a significant person in one's past. Transference is a valuable tool used by therapists in psychoanalytical psychotherapy.
Countertransference The tendency of the nurse (therapist, social worker) to displace onto the patient feelings that are a response to people in the nurse's past. Strong positive or strong negative reactions to a patient may indicate countertransference.
Orientation Phase The phase of the nurse-patient relationship in which the nurse and patient meet, and the nurse conducts the initial interview. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 808)
Working Phase The phase of the nurse-patient relationship during which the nurse and patient identify and explore areas that are causing problems in the patient's life. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 816)
Termination phase The final, integral phase of the nurse-patient relationship. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 814)
Extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs) Side effects of the use of certain psychotropic drugs, particularly the phenothiazines. Three reversible ones are acute dystonia, akathisia, and pseudoparkinsonism. A fourth, tardive dyskinesia, is the most serious and is not reversible.
anticholinergic side effects Side effects of some medications (e.g., neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants) that include dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, and dry mucous membranes. (Varcarolis 2010, p. 796)
Paranoid Schizophrenia Onset usually in the late 20s to 30s. Good premorbid functioning. Paranoia (any intense and strongly defended irrational suspicion) is the main characteristic; the main defense is projection. Hallucinations, delusions, and ideas of reference are dominant.
Disorganized Schizophrenia The most regressed and socially impaired of all the schizophrenias. The person has highly disorganized speech and behavior and inappropriate affect. Bizarre mannerisms include grimacing, along with other oddities of behavior.
Catatonia Schizophrenia Abnormal motor behavior. Extremes: 1) psychomotor agitation (leads to exhaustion) & 2) psychomotor retardation and withdrawal to the point of stupor. Onset acute, prognosis good. Other behaviors: autism, waxy flexibility, & negativism.
Undifferentiated (Mixed Type) Schizophrenia Patients experience active hallucinations and delusions, but no one clinical picture dominates (e.g., not paranoid, catatonic, or disorganized; rather, the clinical picture is one of a mixture of symptoms)
Residual Schizophrenia No active symptoms & behaviors. However, persistence of some symptoms (social withdrawal; impairment in role function; eccentric behavior or odd beliefs; poor personal hygiene; lack of interest/energy/initiative; inappropriate affect)
AIMS Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, a brief test for the detection of tardive dyskinesia and other involuntary movements. It examines facial, oral, extremity, and trunk movement.
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) An effective therapeutic modality that seeks to identify negative and irrational patterns of thought and challenge them based on rational evidence and thoughts.
Traditional Antipsychotics Common Side Effects Anticholinergic effects: blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary hesitancy
Atypical Antipsychotics Common Side Effects Weight gain
SSRI Common Side Effects Sexual dysfunction & nausea/vomiting
SSRI Adverse Effect Serotonin syndrome, increased suicide risk, High drug interaction potential
Serotonin Syndrome s/s confusion, agitation, hyperthermia, myoclonus, hyperreflexia
SSRIs Escitalopram (Lexapro), citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva, Sandoz), sertraline (Zoloft), fluvoxamine (Luvox), hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort)
fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra) SSRI; causes short-term weight loss & increases chances of n/v
Atypical Antidepressants SNRIs (Effexor, Pristiq, Cymbalta), NDRIs (Wellbutrin), TeCAs (Remeron)
Tricyclic Antidepressants Elavil (amitriptyline), Anafranil (clomipramine), Norpramin (desipramine), Tofranil (imipramine), Pamelor (nortriptyline), Sinequan (doxepin), Vivactil (protriptyline)
-ine meds Tricyclic Antidepressants
Tricyclic Antidepressants Adverse Effect Cardiac toxicity (lethal with one weeks supply)
Tricyclic Antidepressants Common Side Effects sedation, orthostatic HTN, anticholinergic effects
MAOIs Adverse Effect Tyramine Interaction (HTN Crisis, causing stroke or death)
Foods containing tyramine cheeses, wines, chopped liver, and some medications (sympathomimetic amines)
Geodon (ziprasidone) Atypical Antipsychotic; Causes increased QT interval, not for pts with MI or HF
Clozapine (clozaril) Atypical Antipsychotic; risk for agranulocytosis requiring weekly WBCs
Abilify (aripiprazole) Atypical Antipsychotic; low risk for weight gain, preferred in Obese pts
Risperidone Consta Atypical Antipsychotic; Injection used for non-compliance; AKA Depot or Decanoate
Benzodiazepine Anxiolytics Ativan (lorazepam), Klonopin (clonazepam), Valium (diazepam), Xanax (alprazolam), Librium (chlordiazepoxide), Tranxene (clorazepate)
-pam meds Benzodiazepine Anxiolytics
Non-Benzodiazepine Anxiolytics Buspar (buspirone), Inderal (propranolol), Vistaril (hydroxyzine), Kava-Kava (piper methysticum)
Inderal Beta-blocker used as Non-Benzodiazepine Anxiolytic; used for stage fright
Vistaril Antihistamine used as Non-Benzodiazepine Anxiolytic
Kava-Kava Non-Benzodiazepine Anxiolytic; must monitor fo liver damage
Traditional Antipsychotics Haldol (haloperidol), Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Prolixin (fluphenazine), Mellaril (thioridazine HCl), Stelazine (trifluoperazine), Trilafon (perphenazine)
Traditional Antipsychotics treat what symptoms Positive Only
Atypical Antipsychotics treat what symptoms Positive & Negative
Atypical Antipsychotics Abilify (aripiprazole), Ziprasidone (Geodon), Risperidone (Risperdal, consta), Seroquel (quetiapine), Zyprexa (olanzapine), Clozapine (Clozaril), Invega/sustenna (paliperidone), Saphris (asenapine), Latuda (lurasidone)
GABA action Antianxiety
Dopamine action Movement (Increased in Antipsychotics & Decreased in Parkinson Meds)
Seratonin action Energy (Increased in antidepressants)
Acetylcholine (ACh) action Memory (Increased in Alzheimer's meds)
EPS Treatments Artane, Benadryl, Cogentin, Symmetrel
Anti-Manic & Mood Stabilizing Drugs Lithium, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol, Trileptal
Lithium Anti-Manic; Must MAINTAIN salt intake
Lamictal Anticonvulsant used as a Mood Stabilizer; can cause Steven Johnson's; monitor LFTs
Tegretol Anticonvulsant used as a Mood Stabilizer; can be fatal if taken with MAOIs; monitor blood work 4-6 wks for signs of bone marrow depression
Central Nervous System Stimulants/ADHD Treatment Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta, Strattera, Vyvanse, Focalin
CNS Stimulants Common Side Effect Decreased appetite (can lead to anorexia) and growth inhibition
Strattera NSRI used for ADHD Treatment; monitor electrolytes & LFTs
Alzheimer's Disease Treatments Razadyne, Aricept, Exelon, Namenda, Ginko Biloba
Substance Abuse Related Meds Disulfiram, Naltrexone, Methadone, Suboxone, Campral, Catapress, Topamax
Catapres Anti-HTN used to treat Substance Abuse
Topamax Anticonvulstant used to treat Substance Abuse
Disulfiram Used to treat Alcohol Abuse; will have reaction to ANY amount of alcohol (even OTC products)
Hypnotic Drugs & Herbal Sleep Aids Restoril (temazepam), Sonata (zaleplon), Ambien (zolpidem), Lunesta (eszopiclone), Rozerem (ramelteon), Valerian, Melatonin, Desyrel (trazlodone)
Valerian Herbal Sleep Aid that can cause liver issues, monitor LFTs
Created by: camellia