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# 2nd Semester Review

An airplane flies past a bird. What is the reference point? The bird...the plane is faster so it MOVES past the bed
2 factors that determine speed distance and time
Difference between speed and velocity direction
Example of a balanced force Picture hanging on a wall
DIFFERENCE between a force and work You can apply a force without causing an object to move...WORK requires that the object moves.
What does an unbalanced force cause? Change in speed and/or direction
Friction opposes motion
Increases Friction Sand on ice
Decreases Friction Oil
Law of Universal Gravitation ALL matter has mass and ALL mass is affected by gravity
Relationship between mass, distance, and gravity As mass increases, gravity increases. As distance increases, gravity decreases
weight measure of gravitational force
weight is NOT constant
weight measured in Newtons
Net Force Combination of all forces acting on an object
Acceleration due to gravity All falling objects accelerate towards the earth at 9.8 m/s/s
Freefall The only force acting on an object is gravity
Freefall makes an astronaut appear weightless
momentum depends on mass and velocity
Bumper cars collide. The momentum of the faster car... decreases as the velocity of the slower car increases
Newton's 1st Law A moving object that is not acted on will continue moving
Newton's 1st Law An object at rest will remain at rest
Projectile Motion Combination of horizontal force and vertical force
A dart's vertical force is a result of... gravity
A dart's horizontal force is a result of... the person throwing it
When playing darts, aim high because of... projectile motion
When you swim and push against the wall of the pool, this is an example of... Newton's 3rd Law
Work output Work done on an object by a machine
Work input Work done by you on a machine
mechanical efficiency comparison of work output to work input
Work done on an object depends on ... force applied and distance the object moved
How does a ramp make work easier By increasing the distance and decreasing the force you have to apply
Formula for work Force x distance
What is mechanical advantage? Force output (force the machine applies) / Force input (force you apply to the machine)
You apply 10 N of force to a wheel barrow. the wheel barrow applies 50 N of force to a boulder. What is the Mechanical Advantage of the wheel barrow? MA=WO/WI MA=50N/10N MA=5
Difference between a fixed and moveable pulley. Fixed pulley only changes direction of the force...mechanical advantage is always 1
Material that allows charges to move easily Conductor
Material that does not allow charges to flow easily Insulator
Loss of static electricity and charges move off of it electric discharge
Part of a cell where charges enter and exit electrode
Relationship between resistance and current As the resistance decreases, the current increases
3 basic parts of a circuit power source, wire, load
Good conductors have low... resistance
Circuit that provides only one path to the energy source Series Circuit
electric current is made from a ... changing magnetic field
This can demagnetize a magnet. high temperatures
A coil of wires with an electric current Solenoid
Magnets are strongest at the.... poles
Created by: tonyaldudman