Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Developmental L13

Temperament/Attachment

QuestionAnswer
Babies have certain predispositions. Predispositions are behaviours/characteristics that are....? handed down through evolution probably because they have enhanced survival.
Infants have two main predispositions that we think help them to survive through evolution. What are they? Cute appearance and babies show attachment when they become mobile which is the time when they are in most need of becoming attached as they can get into trouble so these two predispositions help them survive
How does the predisposition of being cute help babies survive? Because it elicits a caring and parental response which ensures the babies are cared for. We see same thing in kittens. Babies eyes and face are bigger which we find attractive (dolls) so we will pay more attention and care towards babies.
How does the predisposition of doing attachment behaviour help babies to survive? Babies show attachment behaviour at a crucial time, when they become mobile and therefore they become closer to parents so parents can look after them and help keep them out of trouble (walking near a fire). So attachment protects the baby's survival.
Adults have two main predispositions that we think help the human race/babies to survive. What are they? Responding to cries with focused attention and more rapid heartbeat and responding to infants smiles and laugh with physiological arousal
How does adults predisposition of responding to babies cries help them to survive? Adults responding to babies cries with focused attention and more rapid heartbeat means that babies are going to be cared for and seen to if they are crying in distress and therefore is going to enhance babies survival.
How do we know that adults find babies cries particularly stressful? Because when you compare their cortisol stress levels of babies cries and white noise, they rate them the same but they show increased cortisol when baby is crying.
How does the predisposition of responding to babies smiles and laughs help with their survival? Provides them with stimulation and is rewarding for us so we continue to make them smile and laugh.
How many dimensions did Thomas, Chess and Birch differentiate babies temperaments into? 9
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "how frequently the baby eats and sleep and poos. And what would make this a bad/stressful temperament for parents to deal with? Rhythmicity. If baby is eating frequently. all the time then this is stressful as mother has to get up lots in night to breastfeed. Or if they dont sleep same thing. And if they poo heaps then have to change nappy heaps. All stressful for parents
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "baby adjust to change versus they dont adjust to change very well" Adaptability
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "Whether they are generally happy or not" Quality of their mood
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? " Some babies you can distract really easily as they will play with new toy for a while and not get bored too quickly but others get bored after 5 or 10 seconds" Distractibility
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? " whether they kick or dont kick. Some babies just sit there and dont do much, making it very easy for parents BUT other babies are extremely active" Activity level
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "babies will delight in new things versus fear of new things" Approach withdrawal
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "some babies will get very upset, very excited. Excitement would be good but having a lot of tears is bad and stressful" Intensity of their reactions
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "They react or they dont react to noises. With his son any loud noise such as a sneeze would make him cry" Responsiveness threshold
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? "wether they are generally happy or sad" Quality of their mood
Which dimension of a babies temperament/personality is this? " Some babies have a long attention span, can play with the same toy for a long time. So attention span sort of relates to Distractibility and refers to how long they can play with the same toy" Attention span
By 2-3 months you can characterise a baby as....? Easy, difficult and other.
What are 'easy' babies like and what % are babies 'easy'? Easy babies are positive, regular and adaptive and 40 of babies are easy
What are 'difficult' babies like and what % are babies 'difficult'? negativ,e irregular and unadaptive and 10% of babies are difficult
What are 'other' babies like and what % are babies 'other'? They are mixed - mixture of easy and difficult and 50% of babies are other
When you look at the effects of children you find both __________ and ___________ post-natal depression maternal and paternal
Maternal post-natal depression is not that uncommon. ___ to ____ % of mothers develop it 10-15%
Symptoms of maternal post-natal depression include....? (4 things) not wanting to hold baby or feeling detached, having neg. thought about baby, having sleep problems and feelings of suicide or committing suicide or infanticide.
What things make maternal post-natal depression more likely? More likely is baby is fussy, has feeding problems or colic (when they seem to get upset later in day), reflux (vomiting heaps)
Maternal post-natal depression can cause what in extreme cases? Suicide or infanticide
Women are ____% more likely to be admitted to a psychiatric unit in the 18 months after giving birth than at any other time of their lives 23
What causes paternal post-natal depression? The mothers focus shifts to herself and her baby and the father feels left out and isolated is not getting any sex. So if baby has bad temperament mother has to put more focus on baby instead of father.
It is hard to determine whether temperaments are due to nature or nurture. What is the example of cultural differences with crying of this? Most European-American 4 year olds cry loudly within 5 seconds of having an injection BUT only half of Japanese babies cry. Could be nature (they are generally born with easy temperament) or nurture (they have already learnt what to expect with injection)
It is hard to determine whether temperaments are due to nature or nurture. What is the example of with soothing of this? Less than half of European American infants are soothed when the mother or father eventually responds while 3/4 of Japanese and Chinese babies are soother and stop crying within 90 seconds.
With Japanese compared to European Americans there is not only a difference about how....? easily they will cry bit also about easily they are soothed.
Most aspects of temperament are ____________ stable, maybe not from infancy but at least from __________. How do we know this? moderately, childhood. Because most uneasy characteristics of a baby do not last and continue into childhood but most difficult characteristics of children do remain stable
Most aspects of temperament have what kind of component? How do we know this? genetic component. Because of twin studies where the concordance rate of temperament is higher in identical twins than fraternal twins.
With twins studies what is the data for the example of activity level concordance rate? Identical twins have a .72 concordance rate for activity level and fraternal twins have a .38 concordance rate for activity level.
What aspect have they found to be more influenced by hereditary/genetics than other dimensions? How? Negative affects of babies temperament. With twin studies
In terms of genetics/hereditary, temperament is influenced more by genetics in infancy or childhood? How do we know this? Childhood, twin studies
Why is an infants temperament important? = because some aspects of temperament persist into childhood and adulthood such as....(5 examples) Persistent kid more likely to succeed at school, active, distractible kid less likely to succeed at school, anxious/fearful kid more likely to comply w/ parent rule, fearful/angry more prone to depression, shy kid less likely to help stranger in distress.
There are also three other reasons for why temperament is important in infancy (other than that it persists into later life) What are they? Effects attachment later, effects parenting style, and there is evidence for continuity (stability).
What is the impact of infancy effecting attachment later? It in turn affects social and emotional development
How do temperament in infancy effect parenting styles? This also affects social and emotional development. If you have a difficult child, it is difficult to be a good parent but if you have a child with an easy temperament then your parenting style is a good one - you are a good parent.
Why is infants temperament important/of concern in regards to continuity (stability) of temperament into early adulthood? Because temperament at childhood is more continuity into adulthood so it is important to fix bad temperaments in infancy before they reach childhood.These temperaments that continue in adultlife are linked to mental health, employment & relationships
Stability of temperament is small or big? Most infancy personality (temperament) good or bad can c________. If you have a difficult baby it does not mean that....? small, change, does not meant that they will be difficult in childhood or adulthood
However there is one personality trait (temperament) that is often consistent from infancy. What is it? Shyness
Shy men tend to....? date less or date late and marry later
Shy women tend to ....? stay at home rather than work
Extroverts tend to be in more highly paid ___________ positions? management
There are cultural differences with shyness where 25% of _____ _______ children are consistently outgoing and only ___% are shy. But in New Zealand the percentage of shyness will probably be much greater only 10% shy in America
Shyness seems to be stable. It seems to be a fear of new things but not just to people, also tend to be shy towards new _____ in general stimuli
Researcher looked at stability of shyness from infancy. They rated the infants as high or low on ____________ (kicking or arm-waving) and ________. What did they find from this and then what did the researchers then do in the study? Found that 23% were high on both 37% were low on both & 40% were mixed. Then at 9 and 14 months they exposed children to stranger & unusual tastes. Found that 14 year olds w/ lowest fear scores, none of them had been high-high at 4yrs so they dont reverse
What do we conclude from the study that looked at stability of shyness from infancy that first exposed 4 year olds to novel toys, mobiles and sounds? That there is stability between 4 months and9-14 months in both response to people (stranger) and response to novel stimuli (unusual taste)
Shyness has a _______ component (backed up by.....?) genetic, backed up by twins studies
Social shyness is one aspect of....? of a more general shyness of things/stimuli
There is also an environmental component to shyness. Discuss the three things hat show this... shyness is more likely if you have a domineering older sibling, have a 50/50 chance of not being shy at 7 - parents encouragement of play with child reduces shyness, theres a cultural impact - shyness is more accepted in China than America
Shyness is more likely if you have what type of siblings? Domineering older sibling
Extremely shy toddlers have a ___/____ chance of not being shy at age 7. What can parents do to improve their child's chance and why does it help? Encourage play with the child reduces shyness as child find out that their fear of people and things does not actually come true so they lose that shyness
How is there a cultural impact on shyness? Because shyness os more accepted in Chinese than American. So in China, shyness is more accepted and therefore kids are more likely to be shy.
In conclusion about shyness, it has stability - it may be malleable and may have a cultural component BUT nevertheless, very few shy toddlers become _________ at age 7. extroverts
With shyness - you are modified within a certain ______ - you dont become an extrovert, you become ___ ____ (in other words, inbetween) range, not shy
How do attachment and temperament relate to each other? Temperament can affect attachment
When do infants begin to show separation and stranger anxiety? At around the same time, when they begin to crawl (around 7 months)
What happens at around 7 months? Infants begin to crawl and begin to show both separation and stranger anxiety
Stranger Anxiety begins at _ months and peaks at __-14 months. Describe what happens when baby has Stranger Anxiety. And what does stranger anxiety depend on? (3 things) 6, 10-14, Baby will wail/cry when they meet a stranger. It depends on baby's temperament, parent-infant relationship and stranger's behaviour towards the baby.
Separation Anxiety beings at _ months and peaks at __ months. What does Separation Anxiety depend on/differ by? 8, 14, Differs if the parent leaves abruptly or if they say goodbye and give reassurance.
Which type of anxiety is it when baby now cries when left with babysitter or grandparents? Separation Anxiety
What is the common example of social referencing? The visual cliff where is the mother looks fearful the baby is less likely to cross the cliff part and if the mother looks happy and smiles the baby is more likely to cross the cliff part
When does social referencing normally begin? 9 - 12 months
s s
s s
What does Stranger Anxiety depend on? Baby's temperament, parent-infant relationship, strangers behaviour towards baby
Which type of anxiety is it when baby cries when going to the doctor, held and examined by the doctor? Stranger Anxiety
When does Stranger Anxiety begin in babies? 6 months
When does Separation Anxiety begin? 8 months
What is interesting about the way that stranger and separation anxiety and social referencing all occur around the same time, when baby is more mobile? All are helping baby to survive in evolution terms. Fear of strangers help to survive and fear of separation from parents help to survive as parents can warn off danger and social referencing where they use parents feedback help them to keep outa trouble
When does Stranger Anxiety peak for babies 10-14months
What did Harry Harlow say? That a baby monkey needs something more than just food, it needs LOVE.
What does the video of the baby monkey finding comfort and ease by holding onto mother monkey show when scared of scary monkey? That the power of this surrogate mothers is huge.
What is the simile used by Bowlby (1951) about mother love. That mother love is just as important for an infant or child's mental health as vitamins and protein is for physical health
When does Separation Anxiety peak for babies? 14 months
A child's attachment (degree of how much they want to be close to parent figure) can be tested using? at what age? The Strange Situation at around 12-18 months
With the stranger situation. what are we looking to see happen in episode 4? Looking to see how much distress baby shows
With the stranger situation, what are we looking to see happen in episode 5? Whether the baby is comforted when the mother returns.
If at episode 6 when the baby is left alone by themselves, if the baby was indeed attached to the mother what would you see? If this was the case what would you expect in episode 7? They would cry. In episode 7 the stranger comes back in so you would expect baby to cry again because they are attached to the mum.
What are the steps in the Stranger Situation? M.B, M.B, M.B.S, S.B, M.B, B, S.B, M.B
With the Strange Situation in steps 1, 2, 5 what are we interested in? Whether the baby will explore and if so this means they are secure
With the Strange Situation in steps 4, 6, what happens in both of these and what are we interested in? Whether the baby will show reasonable distress - if they do then they are securely attached to the mother. But if they show too much distress then they are insecurely attached to the mother
With the Strange Situation in steps 5 and 8 what happens and what are we interested in? The mother returns and whether the baby is comforted by the mothers return.
What are the four types of attachment? Secure, Insecure resistent, Insecure Avoidant, Insecure Disoriented
Which type of attachment is this? "child interacts very little with mother and shows no distress when she leaves" Insecure Avoidant
Which type of attachment is this? " Child will attempt to be close to mother, will leave mothers lap to play with toys but will look back and vocalise with mother and then will return for hug" Secure
Which type of attachment is this? "baby won't leave the mother even when she is in the room" Insecure Resistent
What happens at episode 1,2 and 5 of the strange situation? The mother and baby are by themselves so testing whether they explore and if they do then they are securely attached
Which type of attachment is this? "The child is simply inconsistent" Insecure Disoriented
What are the four types of attachment? Secure, Insecure resistent, Insecure Avoidant, Insecure Disoriented
Which type of attachment is this? "Will cry loudly when mother leaves and will not be comforted when she returns" Insecure resistant
Which type of attachment is this? "Child makes no attempt to re-establish contact when mother returns, so there is not much bond there" Insecure Avoidant
What happens at episode 4 and 6 of the strange situation? The mother leaves baby either with stranger or by themselves. But in general this is about the mother leaving
Which type of attachment is this? "Will become distressed when mum leaves but are not too stressed - are not traumatised and are easily calmed when mother returns" Secure
Which type of attachment is this? "When mother returns child might sob angrily in mothers arms" Insecure resistant
Which type of attachment is this? "child avoids mother after seeking closeness with mother when she returns" Insecure Disoriented
Which type of attachment is this? "Will not be comforted when mother returns" Insecure resistant
What happens at episode 5 and 8 of the strange situation? The mother comes back so looking at whether the baby is comforted by her return and id baby is then baby is securely attached to mother
Which type of attachment is this? "baby is calm when mother returns" Secure
What can we say about the stability of attachment status during infancy between 12 and 18 months? That it is very stable. 30 who were secure at 12 months were still secure at 18 months and 18 who were insecure at 12 months were still insecure at 18 months
If a baby is securely attached at 1 year what is the child likely to be like later...? (emotion, skills, friends and leader, teacher) Show less neg. emotion & more pos. emotion at age 2-3. Have better curiosity, social & cognitive skills at age 3. More likely to be chosen as friend & as leader at age 3 & they interact w/ teacher in friendly & appropriate ways-seek help when needed.
If a baby is insecurely attached at 1 year what is the child likely to be like later? (boys, girls) Boys tend to be more aggressive at age 4, girls tend to be more overly dependent on others - they will cling to teacher instead of exploring other things and persons.
The different effects of being securely and insecurely attachment can last until _-_ years old 5-6
Schneider et al (2001)'s meta-analysis of 63 studies found that children with secure attachment tend to.....? have better relations with peers and higher quality friendships at a later age.
Why would a child with secure attachment have better relations with peers and higher quality friendships later in life? Because secure attachment promotes trust and confidence because mother response predictably and appropriately (e.g. if the baby cries)
What is the theory for why some people respond to infants more? Theory is that parents use own experiences as children to guide current parenting.
With the Adult Interview, parents (adult attachments) can be divided into three categories, which are? Secure, Dismissive and Preoccupied
Which type of parent is this? (adult attachment) Sometimes deny value of childhood experiences or recall them precisely, yet often idealise parents. So they recognise the flaws in their parents which is important" Dismissive
Which type of parent is this? (adult attachment) "these parents describe their childhood experiences objectively, they value the impact of their own parents on their development" Secure
Which type of parent is this? (adult attachment) "where they describe their childhood experiences emotionally often expressing anger or confusion regarding relationships with parents" Preoccupied
Many studies have found a relationship between parents secure attachment representations and what two things? Sensitive caring of their infant and secure attachment of their infant
What is this an explanation for? "Because secure attachment promotes trust and confidence because mother response predictably and appropriately (e.g. if the baby cries)" Why securely attached children end up having better relations with peers and higher quality friendships.
So just as child abuse is passed on through generations so is..... good parenting.
Insecure attachment is more likely when the parent is _______? rigid
What do we mean by a rigid parent? A parent who expects the baby to adjust to the parent rather than vice versa for example expecting baby to fit into parents sleep pattern, thus these expectations are too highe rand the parent will end up always being grumpy with the baby.
The baby can bring their own set of characteristics to the mix such as difficult ______. These babies are difficult to console (c____, c____). So parents seem to be doing the right things but some babies just find situation such as the ____ _____ too hard temperament, cheer up, comfort, strange situation
So basically if a parent is good parent who does all the right things, it can be down to the ________ as to whether they are classified as insecurely attached or not. the child
In terms of attachments stability into adulthood - secure attachment will be stable unless...? There are negative life events
Two studies by Waters et al (2000) and Hamilton (2000) favour this idea of stability. What did each study do/find? Waters gave 12month olds Strange Situation & then gave the Adult Attachment Interview at age 20-21 & found that there was good stability especially for secure attachment. Hamilton found that 77% of individuals were categorised similarly between 1 & 17yrs.
Describe the study that found results showing that attachment can be unstable into adulthood Lewis et al(2000) found no relation between 12 mnths & parent/teacher rating of child maladjustment at 13 & 18 year-old attachment based on Adult Attachment Interview, typicaly thought to be due to neg. life events making secure infants insecure as adults
What can we conclude about the three studies that looked at whether attachment is stable or not into adulthood. By in large there seems to be some stability of attachment into adulthood and that if there is a mismatch between early and later diagnosis this is likely to be due to neg. life events, or if have problems early on work hard and make fantastic changes.
One study looked at the concordance between both secure ad insecure sibling pairs to see if there is a genetic babies for attachment status. What four conclusions did they make? No evid. for genetic basis of attachment cos identical twins didn't have higher concord. rate. Samesex siblings had higher concord. rate (small dif), concord. rate higher if maternal sens. incr. or remain same for 2nd kid, maternal sens. decr. for 2nd kid
Study looked at inter and intra cultural differences in attachment statuses. What were the two findings? There was some inter-cultural differences but the basic pattern was consistent. And that intra-cultural difference was 1.5 times larger in attachment status than between cultures.
Why would the difference/variation be greater (1.5) within a culture than between? Because within culture variation is greater due to SES where as if you compare New Zealands social class with Japans social class it is similar.
Although there was only small differences found inter-culturally, what were they? In Japan infants have resistant attachment more and in UK infants have avoidant attachment more. Perhaps because in Japan infants spend more time with mums so dont used to them leaving and in UK perhaps infants used to being left alone so not resistent
Study the things that better attachment is associated with and then try recall them. ....
What are the things that better attachment is associated with? Recall them off by heart
You can look at the affects of maternal sensitivity on children's attachment status with longitudinal study. Describe what they did? Measured parents (mothers or fathers) sensitivity when child is young and then later measured child attachment status
With the longitudinal study that was predicting children's later attachment status from parents early sensitivity what were the results? Maternal sensitivity when baby is 4 months old predicted secure attach. at 1 year. Also infants affect regulation at 4 months was related to mothers sens. and maternal sens. and subsequent child attach. status were partially due to infant temperament
What does affect regulation refer to? How likely the baby is to cry in a situation
With the study looking at maternal sensitivity it is hard to know what is causing what. Is it good maternal sensitivity that is causing _________ ________ or reverse. And if child has good temperament is this causing good parenting sensitivity or reverse? maternal sensitivity x 2
To figure out what is causing what with the maternal sensitivity study what did we look at in class? 70 interventions studies study where they went into homes and taught parents how to be more sentitive
How did the 70 studies study on maternal sensitivity go about teaching parent sot be more sensitive? They gave them acces to community services, to information about how to touch and interact with their baby and gave video feedback and analysed this interaction.
What did the 70 studies study on maternal sensitivity find out/what were their results? That these interactions that parents were taught enhanced their parenting sensitivity and also enhance later attachment security in children
Parents that are trained to be sensitive are more likely to have babies that are....? securely attached
Is this intervention in the maternal sensitivity 70 studies study are good method to use to change relationships between parents and children if there relationship is not good? Yes! Because the intervention enhanced parental sensitivity and enhanced infants security - so changing relationship between them to a more positive one
The intervention technique use in the 70 studies study is a powerful technique for helping to _______ the ___ which is going to produce happy and healthy human beings. break the cycle
What are the stages that a baby goes through if they are separated form mother for long time or mother dies? Distress (cries), then Protest (angry cry), then Despair (if separation continues), Detachment.
Orphanage children are in the ______ stage where they feel ________. They are not unhappy and they dont protest, they are just in their own little world final, detached
What are the predictors of lasting psychological damage to a child in this situation? The age of the child, The quality of the previous attachment, The quality and familiarity of the substitute care.
What are the predictors of lasting psychological damage to a child in this situation? The age of the child, The quality of the previous attachment, The quality and familiarity of the substitute care.
Lasting damage form being in an orphanage is _______ rare - only in extreme cases
Orphanage adoption study compares orphanages kids adopted out in their _____ year to kids who stayed in orphanage for _to_ years. What did they find? first, 3 to 4, found big differences where kids who spent longer had more deficits in IQ, language, social skills and mental health. BUT by age 8 these differences had GONE except for emotional and behaviour problems so kids are pretty resilient
In orphanage adoption study found big differences where kids who spent longer had more deficits in IQ, language, social skills and mental health BUT that....? at age 8 these differences had GONE except to emotional and behavioural problems. --> so kids are pretty resilient if they get some sort of attention at some point.
What is the evidence relating to if these orphanage kids are put into a rich enrichment programme? That even the emotional and behaviour problems might be overcome! So pretty resilient kids!
The Romanian orphanage kids were severely _________. They could not ___ __ at age 2, were silent because...? and showed delay on every single indicator including electrical ______ measurements (brain response) to find that brains were not responding sit up, because cries never responded to (detachment), brain
Romanian orphanage kids were adopted out to Canadian homes for 10 years and study found that children made...? rapid gains in all areas including improvements in brain functions
What was found with Romanian children who were adopted to Canadian families in relation to ADHD That even after being out of orphanage for 10 years, they still had ADHD symptoms
Orphans who spent less than 4 months still had higher ADHD than baseline (___________ _________) of _% Canadian and adoptees with ADHD, 5% was the baseline
Orphans who spent 8 months to 4 years were far above the baseline (_%) where 57% still had ADHD so ___% did not overcome this 5, 43%
In terms of IQ, if they are only in orphanage for 0-6 months how well do they do? About just as well as control group (English speaking canadian kids)
In terms of IQ, if they are adopted from the orphanage between 7 and 24 months then what is their IQ like? It is not as good as those adopted 0-6 months - it is average at 100
In terms of IQ if they are adopted from the orphanage between 24 months and 42 months what is their IQ like? IQ is quite bad, drops even further.
So the longer you stay in the orphanage the worse you ______ and your __ ADHD, IQ (measure of brain function)
From the Romanian orphanage study what did we conclude overall? That there is a resilience BUT there is a time window for intervention that is important. SO the less time spent in orphanage the better the outcome especially in terms of ADHD and overall brain functioning which manifests in this IQ measures
Created by: alicemcc33