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Final Review 2013

Study cards for the biology final 2013

inherited as factors from parent to offspring. traits
are less likely to be inherited together if they are far apart on the chromosome linked genes
predict the traits of offspring principles of probability
during gamete formation genes of different traits separate without influencing each other principle of independent assortment
Cross a chicken with black feathers with a chicken that has white feather. All the chicks have "blue" (a blend of black and white) feathers. Codominance inheritance
Complex traits such as human skin color or height polygenic inheritance
These assort independently chromosomes
True breeding tall plant crossed with true breeding short plant F1 plants inherit tall allele from tall parent; short allele from short parent.
If genes for different traits are linked F2 plants would show different phenotype ratios for both traits
Offspring from cross between two, true breeding parents of different forms Hybrids
Cross true breeding purple flower with true breeding white flower. All F1 are purple. Allele for purple is dominant
A pea plant has a recessive allele for green color seeds. It will make green seeds only if? it does not have a dominant, yellow seed color allele present
Organisms with two identical alleles for a trait Homozygous
Punnett squares do not show Actual results for a genetic cross
Two genes are on the same chromosome and rarely assort independently the genes are probably located close together
Cross a true breeding tall plant with a true breeding short plant. The probability of a tall plant in F2 is? 75% tall 3:4
Nucleotide with deoxyribose, phosphate group, cytosine DNA nucleotide
Replication produces two DNA molecules Each having one original DNA strand and one new DNA strand
DNA with CTAGGT What is the complement? DNA with GATCCA
Translation is the process that the cell uses to do what? The cell makes proteins from mRNA
The number of codons to make 3 amino acids 3
Transcription makes what? RNA molecules
The type of amino acid that is added to a polypeptide chain during translation depends on the codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA
Genes are instructions for making what? proteins
These are both found in DNA and RNA nucleotides phosphate group, guanine, and cytosine
DNA is copied by this process Replication
Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers to prevent self-pollination
An amino acid can have more than one codon, because there are 64 possible codons and only 20 amino acids
The sugar in RNA Ribose
The base found in RNA only Uracil
types of RNA involved with making a protein mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
This RNA is the blueprint for a protein. mRNA
The nucleus contains DNA molecule, histone and chromosome
The Human Genome Project attempted to what? Find the sequence for the entire human genome
A normal human karyotype contains 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
A karyotype allows for the observation of an extra chromosome
The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis Nondisjunction
An open circle on a pedigree female without the trait
Uses for a pedigree include if the trait can be inherited and which allele is dominant and which is recessive
It is most unlikely to see this on a pedigree. All symbols half-shaded; everyone's a carrier and no one has the trait.
The sex-linked allele for color blindness is found on the X chromosome of pair 23
The DNA sequences from the Human Genome Project are available to researchers all over the world
Some gametes may have an extra copy of a chromosome, if non-disjunction occurs in meiosis
The likelihood of a woman having a baby with Down syndrome Increases with the age of the mother
The chromosome error when a part is repeated a duplication
Colorblindness is more common in males the recessive allele is found on the X chromosome
The chances a child will have a sex-link recessive trait from a female carrier married to a male with the trait 50% 2:4
A person with one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not show the trait A carrier
A restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule and leave complementary sticky ends C-T-T-A-A- G- C- -A-A-T-T-C-
The first step in genetically engineering bacteria to make a human protein. Cut the gene out of human DNA using a restriction enzyme.
A cell takes in DNA from another source. Genetic modification
A bacterium such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens used to genetically modify plants
Two cell types used to make animal clones. body cell (somatic cell) and an egg cell
Recombinant DNA technology combines genetic material from different sources into one DNA molecule
they can study specific genes when researchers know the organism's DNA sequence
The father of a colorblind boy may be colorblind. True
Lethal dominant alleles are less common because most people with dominant disorders die before having children.
A plasmid, a foreign gene and recombinant DNA are all found in Genetically modified bacterium
The technique to make transgenic organisms genetic modification
An advantage of a transgenic plant Increased herbicide resistance
An advantage to using genetically engineered bacteria to produce a human protein Genetically engineered bacterium can mass-produce a pure human protein
The start signal for transcription a promoter
Charles Darwin made observations during his voyage on the Beagle in this continent. South America
Charles Darwin observed on the Galapagos Islands somewhat similar species to those on the mainland but with traits suited for their environments
One adaptation Darwin observed in species of finches the birds' different shaped beaks
Similar number of bones and their locations between fossil vertebrates and living vertebrates. Explained on the basis of a common ancestor
Certain individual organisms leave more offspring than others of the same species. Because they possess inherited adaptations well-suited to the environment
Combined alleles of all individuals that make up a population gene pool
The ability of the individual to contribute to the gene pool of the next generation biological fitness
A pelvis and a femur in a whale examples of vestigial structures
Medicines that kill or slow the growth of bacteria antibiotics
A change in the gene pool of a population due to random chance genetic drift
Darwin's theory of evolution is based on variation and natural selection
Farmers selecting animals or plants to use for breeding are looking for traits that are of value to humans
In genetic drift, the allele frequencies change due to chance
A man and a woman, both heterozygous for normal skin pigmentation have an albino child. Mendel's principle of dominance and segregation
Cross a true breeding tall plant with a true breeding short plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation, all F2 plants would be tall
Mendel crossed a true breeding tall pea plant with a true breeding short plant, the F1 plants inherited an allele for tallness from the tall parent, and an allele for shortness from the short parent
A Punnett square for two different traits shows the genes for each trait assort independently
A Punnett square for a cross between a homozygous tall and a heterozygous tall plant. All offspring will be tall.
Homologous chromosomes switching sections with each other crossing over
The process of meiosis makes... gametes
Meiosis results in how many cells? four genetically different cells
In cancer, cells lose the ability to control their rate of division
The first phase of mitosis prophase
Parts of the cell cycle that are not in mitosis S phase, interphase, cytokinesis
The mitotic phase of the cell cycle can be divided into cytokinesis and mitosis
The cell cycle can be described as a series of events that cell go through from "birth" to reproduction
The stage of the cell cycle that results in two daughter cells mitotic phase (cytokinesis and mitosis)
The cell cycle includes G1, G2, and M (mitotic) phase
The part of the cell cycle when DNA is replicated S phase
Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis (unlike meiosis) because tetrads rarely form during mitosis
An organism's gametes have how many chromosomes compared to its body cells? half
Meiosis results in the formation of what kind of cells? haploid
A mass of cancer cells malignant tumor
One difference between cytokinesis in plants versus and animal cells plants have a cell plate form during cytokinesis
the region of sister chromatids where they connect centromere
The opposite arms of a chromosome are made of sister chromatids
When are chromosomes, paired as sister chromatids, visible during prophase and metaphase
what events occur during interphase? metabolic processes
Interphase consists of G1, S, and G2 phases. True statement
G1, S, and G2 phases are known collectively as Interphase
During this phase, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell metaphase
Created by: ccarlough



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