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ch. 21 vocabulary


Abcesses walled off infections into which cells of immune system cannot gain entry
Acute infection begin abruptly, usually with severe effects
Aerosols droplets produced by coughing or sneezing
Asymptomatic infection (subclinical/inapparent) infections that do not manifest symptoms even though microbe is present and normally growing
Bacteremia bacteria in the blood
Chronic carrier one who can spread the disease even though asymptomatic himself
Chronic infection appear insidiously an last for extended periods
Clinical disease one in which symptoms are visible
Communicable diseases one where the agent can be passed from one host to another
Contagious disease diseases that are highly communicable
Endemic diseases localized to their specific areas
Endotoxins integral part of the microbe--common virulence factor--released only when microbe is damaged or lysed--
Epidemic an outbreak of a disease in a restricted area, like a city or state
Epidemiology identifying new organisms and their mode of spread--essential to the reduction of disease
Exoenzymes a number of organisms, including bacteria and viruses, secrete enzymes
Exotoxins toxins secreted from the microbe
Extracellular pathogen survive in humans by characteristic virulence factors that allow them to evade phagocytic cells that would otherwise destroy them
Fecal-oral route microbes transmitted through dirty hands of bugs
Focus (locale) infection that does not spread--a cut that gets nfected
Fomite disease transmission from an inanimate object
Hemolysins toxins or enzymes specifically cause red blood cells to lyse and release their contents--contents available to pathogen as nutrient source
Horizontal transmission disease transmission from one individual to another
Inapparent infection (asymptomatic, subclinical) infections that do not manifest symptoms even though microbe is present and normally growing
Infection control committee on-site in hospitals to identify and control the spreading of outbreaks as rapidly as possible
Infection control nurse on-site in hospitals to identify and control the spreading of outbreaks as rapidly as possible
Infectious dose varies from one organism to another and refers to how many organisms are required to establish an infection of average--exposure to fewer number of this organism usually don't cause infection
Intracellular pathogen developed virulence factors that allow them to survive even inside phagocytic cells
Latency (latent state) symptoms subside--somewhere in the body the microbes carry on in a dormant state--reactivate when immune system is weak or due to other factors
Leukocytosis increased numbers of white blood cells (leukocyte--white cells--osis--condition of) normal in infectious disease
Leukopenia (leuko--white cell--penia--poverty of) reduced numbers of white blood cells
Local infection (systemic) spread via blood or lymphatic system
Locale (focus) wound that becomes infected but does not spread
Nonvirulent microbes microbes that do not cause disease in humans
Opportunistic infections when individuals become diseased because of nonpathogenic organisms like normal flora
Pandemic when a disease spreads around the whole world
Portal of entry site where pathogens gain access to tisue that can be infected--mouth, nose, GU tract, cuts in skin, placenta, and penetration point of a mosquito's proboscis
Primary (frank) pathogen can successfully invade and infect healthy hosts
Primary infection one infection that may lead to another
Secondary infection infection caused by primary infection
Septicemia actively growing bacteria in the blood
Sequelae diseases that seem to completely mend but have specific aftermaths or follow-up problems later
Subacute infection in between acute and chronic infections--intermediate duration and symptom severity
Subclinical infection (asymptomatic, inapparent) infection that do not manifest symptoms even though microbe is present and normally growing
Systemic infection (local) spread via blood or lymphatic systems
Toxemia toxins spread via the blood stream
Vertical transmission disease transmitted from parent to progeny
Viremia Virus in the blood
Virulence factors microbial chemical factors that are required ofr or important in establishing disease
Created by: heatherlvn