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pharmacology 1

drugs for cancer

analgesic ladder (3 steps) step 1: mild to moderate pain use non-opiod analgesic and NSAIDs and acetaminophen. step 2: more severe pain-add opiod analgesic, oxycodone, hydrocodone. step 3: substitute powerful opiod--morphine, fentanyl
non-opiod analgesic are NSAIDs( aspirin, ibuprofen ) and acetaminophen (tylenol)
drug selection for cancer patients use preferred choice of pure opiod agonists, opiod rotation, dosage should be individualized. use the following with caution methadone (dolophine), levorphanol (levo-dromoran), codeine. AVOID meperidine ( DEMEROL )
side effects of pure opiod respiratory depression, constipation, sedation, nausea and vomitting.
what are adjuvent analgesics? used to compliment the effects of opiods-not as a substitute. can be tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline aka elavil). antiseizure meds, local anesthetics/antidysrhymics. CNS stimulants, antihistamines ( hydroxyzine aka istaril ). glucocorticoids
invasive procedures neurolytic nerve block, neurosurgery,trumor surgery, radiation therapy
physical interventions include: heat, cold, massage, exercise, acupuncture
psychosocial interventions include: relaxation and imagery, cognitive distraction, peer support groups
older adults related to pain have heightened drug sensitivity, undertreatment of pain, increased risks of side effects and adverse interactions
misconceptions for older adult beliee that elderly patients are insensitive to pain, belief that elder can tolerate pain well, belief that elderly pateints are highly sensitive to opiod side effects
Created by: hdishuk1
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