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Applied Genetics

Mrs. Janssen's Chapter 13 Applied Genetics Test

What is it called when desired traits are selected & passed on to future generations? selective breeding
What is it called when parents with different forms of a trait crossed to produce offspring with specific traits? hybridization
What is it called when 2 closely related organisms are bred to pass on desired traits & eliminate undesired traits? inbreeding
What is it called when you cross an unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive to determine the unknown genotype? test cross
Manipulating the DNA of one organism to insert DNA from another organism genetic engineering
What is the total DNA present in the nucleus of each cell? genome
What are proteins that recognize, bind to, and cut DNA? restriction enzymes
What process uses an electrical current to separated DNA into fragments according to their size? gel electrophoresis
What is the new DNA molecule generated with DNA from different sources called? recombinant DNA
What is a circle of DNA called? plasmid
What is the enzyme that can join DNA fragments that have sticky ends? DNA ligase
What is the process where bacterial cells take up recombinant plasmid DNA? transformation
What is the process by which large numbers of identical recombinant DNA are produced? cloning
What is it called when DNA bases are identified and put in order? DNA sequencing
What is the process of making millions of copies of a DNA fragment? polymerase chain reaction
What is the use of genetic engineering to find solutions to problems? biotechnology
What are genetically engineered organisms that have a gene inserted from another organism? transgenic organisms
What percent of all nucleotides in the human genome actually code for all the body's proteins? 2%
What percent of nucleotides in the human genome have no direct function? 98%
Approximately how many genes are still unidentified and their functions unknown? 20,000-25,000
What is creating and maintaining database of biological information called? bioinformatics
What are slides or silicon chips spotted with DNA fragments? DNA microarrays
What are variations in the DNA sequence caused by altering a single nucleotide? SNP's (single nucleotide polymorphism)
What are regions of linked variations in the human genome? haplotypes
What is the name of the project that is creating a catalog of common genetic variations that occur in humans? HapMap
What is the study of how genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs? pharmacogenomics
What is the process of correcting mutated genes that cause human disease? gene therapy
What is the study of an organism’s genome? genomics
What is the study & cataloging of the structure & function of proteins in the human body? proteomics
What are the primary information storage units? genes
What are the machines of a cell? proteins
What is produced when a gene is expressed? protein
Created by: jjanssen33