Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Incineration fastest and most destructive; good for anthrax
sterilization destroys all life forms
boiling 100C
boiling doesnt kill spores, kills vegetative forms of bacteria, many viruses, fungi, withing about 10 min
autoclave 121C
autoclave 15 psi
autoclave for 15-20 min, steam under pressure, nothing lives; for culture medium, instruments, dressings, liquids, syringes
autoclave cant put instruments in here, rusts
hot air oven 160C
hot air oven oxidizes proteins, burns microorganisms, does not penetrate materials easily, requires long exposure periods
hot air oven non corrosive to metal instruments, glassware
fractional sterilization 100C for 30 min
fractional sterilization tyndalization; intermittent sterilization
tyndalization intermittent sterilization in that steam and incubator switched back and forth over 3 days; steam kills vegetation not spores, incubation gets spores to germinate, then steam again
hot oil 160C
hot oil doesnt rust metal, used for instruments
UV light wavelengths 100/400 - 2265 nm
UV light links thymine molecules together; cell DNA absorbs energy; destroys bacteria
microwave larger wavelengths than UV light
disinfectant destroys vegetative pathogens on inaminate objects; dont last forever, need to keep in dark bottle
disinfection destroys vegetative pathogens, not endospores, to take away infection
antiseptic destroy pathogens that are on living surfaces
degerm remove microbes from skin by mechanical cleansing
sanitizing reduction of pathogens on eating utensils and plates to safe public health levels, keeps microbial levels safe for using
phenol coefficient test evaluating a disinfectant -PC 100 means 100x better than phenol -PC 1 means equally effective as phenol -PC 0.5 means half as effective as phenol
PC test dont want anything below a 1
PC power is based on ability to kill staph aureus and salmonella typhi
silver nitrate 1% solution put in baby's eyes to stop gonorrhea/chlamydia but moving towards using ERYTHROMYCIN
mouthwash that doesnt get foamy has zinc chloride in it
mouthwash that does get foamy has quats (quartinary ammonium compounds) in it
deodorant soaps contain tricolcarbon - strongly inhibit bacterial growth
only chemical certified sterilizing agents formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde
glutaraldehyde less irritating, more effective -hospital instruments, scopes -2% solution of Cidex is TBcidal
ethylene oxide EtO-NASA -sprayed on gum wrapper -sterilizes plastic petri dishes -sterilizes catheters, heart valves
broad spectrum tetracycline group
narrow spectrum limited - bacitracin and griseofulvin
Penicillin -cant give to mycoplasmids - have no cell wall
penicillin interferes with cell way synthesis via beta-lactam nucleus
aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis - disrupts ribosomes
aminoglycosides products of soil microbes; streptomycin, gentamycin, spectinomycin
aminoglycoside side effects kidney problems, rash and itching
tetracycline block protein synthesis
tetracycline broad spectrum
tetracycline side effect yellow teeth; stunted growth in children
chloramphenicol inhibit protein synthesis
chloramphenicol drug of choice for typhoid fever
chloramphenicol side effects extremely toxic, depresses bone marrow, aplastic anemia
erythromycin inhibits protein synthesis; baby eyes
rifampin blocks transcription; used for tb
bacitracin and polymyxin B nephrotoxins which is why topical
bacitracin also combined with neomycin (an aminoglycoside); narrow spectrum
sulfonamides compete with PABA which is needed for cell membrane
PABA vitamin Bx
sulfonamides sulfones - dapsone for leprosy
Isoniazid INH
INH used for TB
Ethambutol relative to INH, used for early stages of TB
Amphotericin B drug of choice for internal fungi
griseofulvin athletes foot - narrow spectrum
acyclovir blocks DNA transcriptase
acyclovir herpes virus, reverse transcriptase -also called zovirax
azidothymidine AZT
azidothymidine retrovirus; #1 drug of AIDS, blocks reverse transcriptase
Cyclosporine good for transplants!!
cyclosporin blocks immune cells by blocking nonself; supresses cellular immunity without killing T lymphocytes
Phagocytosis if no phagocytosis, no immune response
MHC Major histcompatability complex - on phagocyte and adds the epitope or antigenic determinent
epitope antigenic determinent
antigen presenting cell APC - once MHC adds the epitope becomes APC and carries it to lymphatics
Committed T Cell Once T helper with MHC that matches the phagocyte epitope connects to epitope becomes committed and does lethal hit
lethal hit when cytotoxic T cells connect and secrete perforin to lyse the membrane
three types of antigen presenting cells macrophage, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes
Inflammation nonspecific - involves cytokines, C3a and C5a
Fever invading microorganisms attach to receptors on phagocytic cells, stimulating cells to release Interleukin 1, tumor necrosing factor alpha and interferon alpha (cytokines)
specific immunity starts in bone marrow; stem cells are precursors for all cells in the blood
lymphopoietic cells can go to bursa or thymus
thymus processing matures in thymus and called T cell
bursa processing Bursa of Fabricius - B lymphocytes - mature in lymphatics or gut
Bursa of fabricius used to be called GALT (gut associated lymphoid tissue) or Peryer's patches
humoral immunity B lymphocytes make plasma and memory B cells - plasma cells make antibodies which interact with antigens and encourage phagocytosis
cellular/tissue immunity t lymphocytes leave lymphoid tissue and become lymphoblasts which produce lymphokines/cytokines to engulf antigens
which IG is transplancental? igG
which IG is primary response igM
which IG is secondary response igG
MHC proteins blue print to determine self from nonself
MHC I on every nucleated cell in the body
MHCII on macrophage, B cells, CD4T cells
Complement if dont have complement C3, process will not work!
C3 cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b
C3a Inflammation
C3b does opsonization and also becomes C5
C5 goes to C5a to inflammation or C6-9 for cytolysis (attack complex)
C3a causes inflammation - increase blood vessel permeability, chemotactic, attraction of phagocytes
C3b causes opsonization - immune adherance
C5-9 attack complex -cytolysis - loss of cellular contents through transmembrane channel formed by attack complex
C5a inflammation
whole unit vaccine live attenuated
subunit vaccine piece of virus
first generation vaccine live attenuated
second generation vaccine piece of virus
third generation vaccine synthetic - completely made in laboratory; conjugate
live attenuated active virus, but so weak it cannot replicate, weakened by continuous subculturing
subunit making an antibody for the pilli so it attaches to the receptor of the virus
inactivated/killed vaccine virus treated with formaldehyde, keeps capsule intact
adjuvant substance which enhances the efficacy of the part of the actual parasite going to the lymphatic system (aluminum sulfate); makes the process faster
naturally acquired active get sick, get antigen, make own antibodies; good for lifetime
naturally acquired passive get antibodies; mother to fetus; short effectiveness for 4-6months
artificially acquired active get antigen from vaccine (polio, MMR); good for months to years
artificially acquired passive get antibodies because not enough time (short lasting of 4-6 weeks); give globulin antibody (Human Rabies Immune Globulin - HRIG or Tetanus immune globulin - TIG)
titer highest dilution of serum antibody in which a reaction is visible (1:320)
neutralization blocks viral blinding sites - coats bacterial toxins - neutralize bacteria the antitoxin hits every binding site and then cannot make you sick (ex: botulism)
precipitation precipitate out dissolved antigens and then the phagocytes can eat them, comes out like a mesh gauze (lattice)
Immunodiffusion ouchterlony (with the three holes in agar test and zones of identity, etc)
Zone of identity precipitate up and meet eachother, one line/rainbowish
zone of partial identity line between them looks like a y
zone of non-identity line looks like an x
artificially acquired passive not enough time (short lasting up to 6 weeks); give globulin antibody like Human Rabies Immune globulin (HRIG) or tetanus immune globulin (TIG)
titer highest dilution of serum antibody in which a reaction is visible (1:320)
neutralization vlocks viral binding sites, coats bacterial toxins, neutralizes bacteria and antitoxin hits every binding site and then cannot make you sick (ex: botulism)
precipitation precipitate out dissolved antigens and the phagocytes can eat them, comes out like a mesh gauze (lattice)
immunodiffusion ouchterlony - three holes test adding antibodies and antigens and zones
zone of identity looks like one line/rainbowish
zone of partial identity looks like a y
zone of non- identity looks like an x
complement in order to have an immune reaction you need an antigen, antibody and complement
complement test tubes of antigen, antibody and complement - serum is heated until complement removed and indicator test is needed because the reaction is not visible
Positive complement test clear tube - antibody matched the antigen and the complement was fixed therefore no reaction
negative complement test red tube - antibody didnt match antigen and the compliment was not fixed so lyse RBCs
Fluorescent antibody technique particles containing antigen to antibody react - dye causes complex to glow to illumination of UV light
fluorescent dye apple green glow
rhodamine dye orange red glow (syphilis - old test was the wasserman test then the VDRL test and if positive need the confirmatory test of FTA-ABS)
Types of FTA-ABS -Radioimmunoassay (RIA) -Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST) -Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
Radioimmunoassay RIA - extremely sensitive test used to detect low molecular weight antigens
Radioimmunoassay used to detect haptens, hormones, antibiotics; can measure a trillionth of a gram of substance
Radioallergosorbent Test RAST - to detect IgE; allergy testing
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA - screens for AIDS
Positive ELISA test if positive, must confirm with Western Blot Test
ELISA test also tests for other microorganisms - gonorrhea with gonazyme test
Hypersensitivity Test Type I IgE mediated
Hypersensitivity Test Type I Anaphylaxis (urticaria, hay fever, asthma)
Hypersensitivity Test Type I 30 min or less
Hypersensitivity Test Type 1 1st time come into contact with allergen, IgE coats surface of the basophils and now you are sensitized and nothing happens. Second time you are exposed, the cell bursts and releases histamines.
To desensitize allergen give tiny increments of allergen to decrease the granules and decrease the number of basophils that respond
Hypersensitivity Test Type 2 IgG/M
Hypersensitivity Test Type 2 Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity Test Type 2 5-8 or 12 hours
Hypersensitivity Test Type 2 1.Combs test makes sure blood of pt and donor match so wont be destroyed 2.Hemolytic disease in newborns (Rh factor)
Rh Rh+ dad, Rh- mom, makes Rh+ fetus -1st preg child is fine but Rh+ entered moms blood and she makes antibodies -2nd preg would be fatal unless sensitized to they antibody by giving Rhogam to destroy the Rh+ antigen so she wont create antibodies
Hypersensitivity Test Type 3 IgG/M
Hypersensitivity Test Type 3 Immune complex hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity Test Type 3 2 or 3 hours - 8 hours
Hypersensitivity Test Type 3 antibody is present where the antigen enters the body -serum sickness, arthus phenomenon, lupus, rheumatic fever
Hypersensitivity Test Type 4 T lymphocytes
Hypersensitivity Test Type 4 Cellular or delayed hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity Test Type 4 1-3 days
Hypersensitivity Test Type 4 like with poison ivy; takes a while to cause an effect -induration, tissue damage, contact dermatitis/urticaria, infection
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemias B lymphocyte deficiency
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia antibody deficiency; failure of B cells to develop, lymphoid tissue lacks plasma cells
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia levels of all 5 antibodies are low or absent
Tx Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia give globulin
Di George Syndrome T lymphocyte deficiency
Di George syndrome T cells fail to develop, antibody deficiency; failure of thymus gland to mature in the embryo; huge susceptibility to fungal, protozoan and certain viral disease
Tx Di George syndrome give fetal thymal tissue
Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome both B and T cells deficient; defect in both cellular and humoral immunity
CD3 all T cells have these; associated with T cell receptor for antigens
CD4/CD8 most mature T cells have these
Th1 cells produce cytokines that drive the development of CD8 cytotoxic cells and activate macrophages
Th2 cells produce cytokines that stimulate B cells to produce antibodies
CD4 function as T-helper cells in SPECIFIC antibody response
CD8 function as cytotoxic T cells in the CELLULAR immune process
Created by: jjohrden16