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MAMC exam 9 other complications of pregnancy

teratogens agents in the fetal environment that either cause or increase the likelihood that a birth defect will occur. most agents cross the placenta & affect the developing fetus
types of teratogens infection ionizing radiation maternal hyperthermia pollutants effects of maternal disorders (diabetes, PKU)
mechanical disruptions forces that interfere with normal prenatal development
maternal effects of smoking decreased placental perfusion anemia PROM pretuerm labor spontaneous abortion
fetal effects of smoking prematurity low birth weight fetal demise developmental delays increased incidence of SIDS neurologic problems
maternal effects of marijuana often used with other drugs increased incidence of anemia & inadequate weight gain
fetal effects of marijuana irritability tremors sleep problems sensitivity to light
maternal effects of cocaine hyperarousal state generalized vasoconstriction HTN increased spontaneous abortion abruptio placentae preterm labor CV comp seizures increased STDs
fetal effects of cocaine risk for intracranial bleeding stillbirth prematurity IUGR irritability decreased ability to interact with evnironmental stimuli poor feeding reflexes N/V/D prune-belly syndrome
maternal effects of amphetamines malnutrition tachycardia vasoconstriction
fetal effects of amphetamines withdrawl symptoms IUGR fetal death
maternal effects of opioids spontaneous abortion PROM preterm labor increased incidence of STDs, HIV exposure, hepatitis
fetal effects of opioids IUGR preinatal asphyxia intellectual impairment neonatal abstinence syndrome neonatal infections neonatal death
precentage of women who experience IPV during pregnancy between 1-20%
category A risk no evidence of risk to the fetus exists
category B risk animal reproduction studies have not demonstrated risk to fetus. no adequate & well-controlled studies have been done in pregnant women
category C risk animal reproduction reproduction studies hae shown an adverse effect on the fetus, but no adequate, well-controlled studies have been done in humans. potential benefits may warrant use of drug in pregnant women despite fetal risks
category D risk positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data, but potential benefits may warrant use of drug despite fetal risks
category X risk positive evidence of human fetal risk based on animal or human studies and/or adverse reaction data. risks clearly outweight potential benefits
effect of prenancy on preexisting diabetic mother increased incidence of: spontaneous abortions preeclampsia UTIs premature rupture of membranes shoulder dystocia & injury to the birth canal increaed Cesarean birth rate postpartum hemorrhage
what can untreated ketoacidosis can leat to ______ or _______ _______ fetal or maternal death
heart disease complicates about ___% of all pregnancies 1
most common cardiace problems during pregnancy results from: rheumatic heart disease congenital heart defects mitral valve prolapse (common but benign)
first warning sign of heart disease dyspnea syncope with exertion hemoptysis paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea chest pain with exertion
define anemia in first & third trimester < 11g/dL
define anemia in second trimester < 10.5g/dL
total iron requirement during pregnancy for single fetus 1000mg
maternal folic acid needs _____ during pregnancy double
sickle cell anemia abnormal hemoglobin that causes their erythrocytes to become distorted in a sickle cell shape, or cresecent shape, with low oxygen concentration, acidosis & dehydration worsening the process
thalassemia genetic disorder where there is an abnormality in one of 2 chains of hemoglobin, the alpha or beta chain which leads to alterations in the RBC membrane & decreases the lifespan of the RBC
TORCH Toxoplasmosis Other diseases Rubella Cytomegalovirus Herpes simplex virus
how a fetus may contract toxoplasmosis placental connection with its infected mother
how may a mother contract toxoplasmosis improper handling of cat litter handling or ingesting contaminated meat
most common first manifestation of syphilis in the mother chancre
gonorrhea can cause eye irritation which may lead to blindness (ophthalmia neonatorum)
most common STD in U.S. chlamydia
Created by: ealongo