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IED Key Terms

PLTW Intro to Engineering Design Course Key Terms

Key TermDefinition
Arbitration The hearing and determination of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by them.
Attorney General The principal legal officer of the Crown or a state.
By-product Something produced in the making of something else; a secondary result; a side effect.
Carcinogen A substance capable of causing cancer.
Consensus General agreement.
Critique A detailed analysis and assessment.
Ecosystem A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The US federal agency with a mission to protect human health and the environment.
Ergonomics The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
Ethical Conforming to an established set of principles or accepted professional standards of contact.
Ethics The moral principles governing or influencing conduct.
Evaluate To form an idea of the amount or value of; assess.
Gantt Chart A time and activity bar chart that is used for planning, managing, and controlling major programs that have a distinct beginning and end.
Hazard A danger or risk.
Impact The effect or influence of one thing on another. Some impacts are anticipated, and others are unanticipated.
Landfill A low area of land that is built up from deposits of solid refuse in layers covered by soil.
Mediation The act or process of using an intermediary to effect an agreement or reconciliation.
Negotiation Mutual discussion and arrangement of the terms of a transaction or agreement.
Norms Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior.
Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) A government organization whose mission is to assure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach, and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace
Product Lifecycle Stages a product goes through from concept and use to eventual withdrawal from the market place.
Protocol The accepted code of behavior in a particular situation.
Raw Material Any natural resource that is used to make finished products.
Recycle To reclaim or reuse old materials in order to make new products.
Refurbish To renovate or redecorate.
Refuse Matter thrown away as worthless.
Residue A small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used.
Synergy When the unit or team becomes stronger than the sum of the individual members.
Trade-off An exchange of one thing in return for another
Virtual Team A group of people that rely primarily or exclusively on electronic forms of communication to work together in accomplishing goals.
Waste Material which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required.
Exploded Assembly An assembly drawing in which parts are moved out of position along an axis so that each individual part is visible.
Formula A mathematical relationship or rule expressed in symbols.
Numeric Constraint A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure.
Parameter A property of a system whose value determines how the system will behave.
Parametric Modeling A CAD modeling method that uses parameters to define the size and geometry of features and to create relationships between features. Changing a parameter value updates all related features of the model at once.
Phantom Line A line used to show the alternate positions of an object or matching part without interfering with the main drawing.
Ratio The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value contains or is contained within the other.
Rib A relatively thin flat member acting as a brace support. Also called a web.
Aligned Dimension A system of dimensioning which requires all numerals, figures, and notes to be aligned with the dimension lines so that they may be read from the bottom (for horizontal dimensions) and from the right side (for vertical dimensions).
Allowance The tightest possible fit between two mating parts.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A private, non-profit organization that coordinates the development and use of a voluntary consensus standards in the United States.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)L A professional engineering organization that is known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices in the United States.
Audience Analysis The understanding of the consumer group for which the design is targeted. This would include the audiences, demographics, physical location, amount of time available to view the design, and interest in the subject matter.
Auxiliary View A view that is used to show features that are located on an inclined surface in true size and shape.
Baseline Dimensioning System of dimensioning in which all dimensions are placed from a datum and not from feature to feature. Also referred to as Datum Dimensioning.
Balloon A circle with a single number connected to an assembly component with a leader line to refer to parts.
Bilateral Tolerance A tolerance in which variation is permitted in both directions from the specified dimension.
Blind Hole A hole that does not go completely through the workpiece.
Broken-Out Section A section of an object broken away to reveal an interior feature for a sectional drawing.
Chain Dimensioning Also known as point-to-point dimensioning where dimensions are established from one point to the next.
Clearance Fit Limits the size of mating parts so that a clearance always results when mating parts are assembled.
Counterbore A cylindrical recess around a hole, usually to receive a bolt head or nut.
Countersink A conical-shaped recess around a hole, often used to receive a tapered screw.
Cutting Plane Line A line drawn on a view where a cut was made in order to define the location of the imaginary section plane.
Datum A theoretically exact point, axis, or plane derived from the true geometric counterpart of a specific datum feature. The origin from which the location, or geometric characteristic of a part feature, is established.
Datum Dimensioning A dimensioning system where each dimension originates from a common surface, plane, or axis. Also known as baseline dimensioning.
Decision Matrix A tool used to compare design solutions against one another, using specific criteria.
Detail Drawing A dimensioned, working drawing of a single part. Also referred to as part drawing.
Detail View A view that is used to show a magnified view of features that are too small to adequately specify in another view.
Dual Dimensions Where alternate units are displayed within the same dimension.
Fillet An inside radius between two intersecting planes.
Foreshorten To show lines or objects shorter than their true size. Foreshortened lines are not perpendicular to the line of sight.
Full Section A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that extends completely through an object.
Half Section A sectional drawing based on a cutting plane line that cuts through one-quarter of an object. A half section reveals half of the interior and half of the exterior.
General Notes Notes placed separate from the views; relate to the entire drawing.
Interference The amount of overlap that one part has with another when assembled.
Interference Fit Limits the size of mating parts so that an interference always results when mating parts are assembled.
International Organization for Standardization (IOS) This is a worldwide organization that creates engineering standards.
Least Material Condition (LMC) The smallest size limit of an external feature and the largest size limit of an internal feature.
Limit Dimensions The largest and smallest possible boundaries to which a feature may be made as related to the tolerance of the dimension.
Local Notes Connected to specific features on the views of the drawing. Also known as annotations.
Location Dimension A location dimension that defines the relationship of features of an object.
Market Research The activity of gathering information about consumers’ needs and preferences.
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) The largest size limit of an external feature and the smallest size limit of an internal feature.
Nominal Size The designation of the size established for a commercial product.
Part Drawing A drawing that contains all the information for making one part of the design.
Parts List A list of materials or parts specified for a project. Also referred to as a bill of materials or BOM.
Pitch A distance of uniform measure determined at a point on one unit to the same corresponding point on the next unit; used in threads, springs, and other machine parts.
Reference Dimension A dimension, usually without a tolerance, used for information purposes only. A reference is a repeat of a given dimension or established from other values shown on a drawing. Reference dimensions are enclosed in ( ) on the drawing.
Round An outside radius applied to corners.
Section Lines Thin lines used in a section view to indicate where the cutting plane line has cut through material.
Section View A view that is used to show details not apparent on the exterior of the part.
Size Dimension Placed directly on a feature to identify a specific size or may be connected to a feature in the form of a note.
Specified Dimension The dimension noted or, in the case of a tolerance, the part of the dimension from which the limits are calculated.
Spotface A shallow recess like a counterbore, used to provide a good bearing surface for a fastener.
Survey An investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people, based on a series of questions.
Tap To cut internal threads.
Taper Gradual diminution of width or thickness in an elongated object.
Technical Writing A type of expository writing that is used to convey information for technical or business purposes.
Tolerance The acceptable amount of dimensional variation that will still allow an object to function correctly.
Transition Fit Occurs when two mating parts can sometimes have a clearance fit and sometimes have an interference fit.
Unidirectional Dimension A dimensioning system which requires all numerals, figures, and notes to be lettered horizontally and to be read from the bottom of the drawing sheet.
Unilateral Tolerance A tolerance in which variation is permitted in only one direction from the specified dimension.
Working Drawings Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.
Aesthetic 1. Concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty. 2. Of pleasing appearance.
Asymmetry Symmetry in which both halves of a composition are not identical. Also referred to as informal balance.
Balance A condition in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions. There are three types of visual balance
Color The property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way it reflects or emits light.
Contrast The state of being noticeably different from something else when put or considered together.
Element A basic constituent part.
Emphasis Special importance, value, or prominence given to something.
Form 1. Having the three dimensions of length, width, and depth. Also referred to as a solid. 2. The organization, placement, or relationship of basic elements, as volumes or voids in a sculpture, so as to produce a coherent image.
Gestalt The principle that maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts.
Graphic Design The art of combining text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, books, etc.
Harmony 1. The quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole. 2. Agreement or concord.
Message Analysis The process of deciding what information needs to go into the graphic design, as well as how to effectively use the design elements and principles to present the information. This analysis is based on a thorough analysis of the audience.
Pattern A repeated decorative design.
Pictograph A pictorial symbol for a word or phrase.
Principle The method of formation, operation, or procedure exhibited in a given instance.
Proportion 1. The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. 2. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure.
Radial Symmetry Symmetry about a central axis.
Reverse Engineering The process of taking something apart and analyzing its workings in detail.
Rhythm A regularly recurring sequence of events or actions.
Shape The two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area, in contrast to three-dimensional form.
Space 1. The dimensions of height, depth, and width within which all things exist and move. 2. A free or unoccupied area or expanse.
Symbol A thing that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract.
Symbolism 1. The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities. 2. The symbolic meaning attached to material objects.
Symmetry The correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a median line or about a central axis. Also referred to as formal balance.
Texture The feel, appearance, or consistency of a surface, substance, or fabric.
Typography The style and appearance of printed matter.
Unity The state of being united or forming a whole.
Value The lightness or darkness of a color in relation to a scale ranging from white to black.
Variety A thing which differs in some way from others of the same general class.
Acute Triangle A triangle that contains only angles that are less than 90 degrees.
Angle The amount of rotation needed to bring one line or plane into coincidence with another, generally measured in radians or degrees.
Area The number of square units required to cover a surface.
Axis 1. An imaginary line through a body, about which it rotates. 2. An imaginary line about which a regular figure is symmetrically arranged. 3. A fixed reference line for the measurement of coordinates.
Center of Gravity A 3D point where the total weight of the body may be considered to be concentrated.
Centroid A 3D point defining the geometric center of a solid.
Circle A round plane figure whose boundary consists of points equidistant from the center
Circumscribe 1. A triangle located round a polygon such as a circle. 2 To draw a figure around another, touching it at points but not cutting it.
Cylinder A solid composed of two congruent circles in parallel planes, their interiors, and all the line segments parallel to the axis with endpoints on the two circles.
Density The measure of mass density is a measure of mass per volume.
Diameter A straight line passing from side to side through the center of a circle or sphere.
Ellipse A shape generated by a point moving in a plane so that the sum of its distances from two other points (the foci) is constant and equal to the major axis
Fillet A curve formed at the interior intersection between two or more surfaces.
Inscribe To draw a figure within another so that their boundaries touch but do not intersect.
Mass The amount of matter in an object or the quantity of the inertia of the object.
Meniscus The curved upper surface of a liquid column that is concave when the containing walls are wetted by the liquid and convex when not.
Obtuse Triangle A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees.
Parallelogram A four-sided polygon with both pairs of opposite sides parallel.
Pi (π) The numerical value of the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter of approximately 3.14159.
Polygon Any plane figure bounded by straight lines.
Principal Axes The lines of intersection created from three mutually perpendicular planes, with the three planes’ point of intersection at the centroid of the part.
Prism A solid geometric figure whose two ends are similar, equal, and parallel rectilinear figures, and whose sides are parallelograms.
Quadrilateral A four-sided polygon.
Radius A straight line from the center to the circumference of a circle or sphere.
Rectangle A parallelogram with 90 degree angles. A square is also a rectangle.
Regular Polygon A polygon with equal angles and equal sides.
Right Triangle A triangle that has a 90 degree angle.
Round Two or more exterior surfaces rounded at their intersections.
Square A regular polygon with four equal sides and four 90 degree angles.
Surface Area The squared dimensions of the exterior surface
Tangent A straight or curved line that intersects a circle or arc at one point only.
Title Block A table located in the bottom right-hand corner of an engineering drawing that identifies, in an organized way, all of the necessary information that is not given on the drawing itself. Also referred to as a title strip.
Triangle A polygon with three sides.
Vertex Each angular point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other figure.
Volume The amount of three-dimensional space occupied by an object or enclosed within a container.
Quadrilateral A four-sided polygon.
Annotate To add explanatory notes to a drawing.
Assembly A group of machined or handmade parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit.
Assembly Drawing A drawing that shows parts of an item when assembled.
Cartesian Coordinate System A rectangular coordinate system created by three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, commonly labeled X, Y, and Z.
Component A part or element of a larger whole.
Computer-Aided Design or Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) 1. When used in the context of design
Degree of Freedom The variables by which an object can move. In assemblies, an object floating free in space with no constraints to another object can be moved along three axes of translation and around three axes of rotation. Such a body is said to have six degrees of fre
Design Brief A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. The design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
Design Statement A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed.
Domain The set of input values of a function.
Extrusion 1. A manufacturing process that forces material through a shaped opening. 2. A modeling process that creates a three-dimensional form by defining a closed two-dimensional shape and a length.
Function 1. A relationship from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) that assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. 2. The action or actions that an item is designed to perform.
Geometric Constraint Constant, non-numerical relationships between the parts of a geometric figure. Examples include parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity.
Marketing The promotion and selling of products or services.
Mathematical Modeling The process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decisions.
Mock-up A model or replica of a machine or structure for instructional or experimental purposes. Also referred to as an Appearance Model.
Model A visual, mathematical, or three-dimensional representation in detail of an object or design, often smaller than the original.
Origin A fixed point from which coordinates are measured.
Packaging Materials used to wrap or protect goods.
Pattern A repeated decorative design.
Physical Model A physical representation of an object. Prototypes and appearance models are physical models.
Plane A flat surface on which a straight line joining any two points would wholly lie.
Prototype A full-scale working model used to test and improve a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
Range The set of output values of a function.
Revolution Creating a 3D solid or surface by revolving a 2D shape about an axis.
Rotation Turning around an axis or center point.
Round A rounded exterior blend between two surfaces.
Scale Model An enlarged or reduced representation of an object that is usually intended for study purposes.
Scoring Making an impression or crease in a box blank to facilitate bending, folding, or tearing.
Solid A three-dimensional body or geometric figure.
Solid Modeling A type of 3D CAD modeling that represents the volume of an object, not just its lines and surfaces.
Subassembly An assembled part that is a part of a larger assembly.
Translation Motion in which all particles of a body move with the same velocity along parallel paths.
Working Drawings Drawings that convey all of the information needed to manufacture and assemble a design.
Accuracy The degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to the actual (or accepted) value.
Arrowheads Arrowheads are used to indicate the end of a dimension line or leader.
Caliper A measuring instrument having two adjustable jaws typically used to measure diameter or thickness.
Class Interval A group of values that is used to analyze the distribution of data.
Convert To change money, stocks, or units in which a quantity is expressed into others of a different kind.
Data Facts and statistics used for reference or analysis.
Data Set A group of individual values or bits of information that are related in some way or have some common characteristic or attribute.
Dimension A measurable extent, such as the three principal dimensions of an object as in width, height, and depth.
Dimension Lines A line which represents distance.
Dot Plot See line plot.
Frequency The rate at which something occurs over a particular period or in a given sample.
Graph A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables measured along a pair of lines at right angles.
Histogram A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) A non-governmental global organization whose principal activity is the development of technical standards through consensus.
International System of Units (SI) An international system of units of measurement consisting of seven base units.
Line Plot A method of visually displaying a distribution of data values where each data value is shown as a dot or mark above a number line. Also known as a dot plot.
Mean A measure of center in a set of numerical data, computed by adding the values in a list and then dividing by the number of values in the list.
Measure To determine the size, amount, or degree of an object by comparison with a standard unit.
Median A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list – or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.
Mode The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set.
Normal Distribution A function that represents the distribution of variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph.
Numeric Constraint A number value or algebraic equation that is used to control the size or location of a geometric figure.
Precision The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result.
Scale 1. A straight-edged strip of rigid material marked at regular intervals and used to measure distances. 2. A proportion between two sets of dimensions used in developing accurate, larger or smaller prototypes, or models of design ideas.
Scatter Plot A graph in the coordinate plane representing a set of bivariate data.
Significant Digits The digits in a decimal number that carry meaning contributing to the precision or accuracy of the quantity.
Standard Deviation The distance of a value in a population (or sample) from the mean value of the population (or sample).
Statistics Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on data.
Unit A standard quantity in terms of which other quantities may be expressed.
US Customary Measurement System System of measurement used in the United States.
Variation A change or slight difference in condition, amount, or level.
Cabinet Pictorial Oblique pictorial where depth is represented as half scale compared to the height and width scale.
Cavalier Pictorial Oblique pictorial where height, width, and depth are represented at full scale.
Center Line A line which defines the center of arcs, circles, or symmetrical parts.
Construction Line Lightly drawn lines to guide drawing other lines and shapes.
Depth The measurement associated with an object’s front-to-back dimension or extent of something from side to side.
Dimension A measurable extent, such as the three principal dimensions of an object is width, height, and depth.
Dimension Line A line which represents distance.
Documentation 1. The documents that are required for something or that give evidence or proof of something. 2. Drawings or printed information that contain instructions for assembling, installing, operating, and servicing.
Drawing A formal graphical representation of an object containing information based on the drawing type.
Edge The line along which two surfaces of a solid meet.
Ellipse A regular oval shape, traced by a point moving in a plane so that the sum of its distances from two other points is constant, or resulting when a cone is cut by an oblique plane which does not intersect the base.
Extension Line Line which represents where a dimension starts and stops.
Freehand Sketching which is done manually without the aid of instruments such as rulers.
Grid A network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles.
Height The measurement associated with an object’s top-to-bottom dimension.
Hidden Line A line type that represents an edge that is not directly visible.
Isometric Sketch A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection.
Leader Line Line which indicates dimensions of arcs, circles and detail.
Line 1. A long thin mark on a surface. 2. A continuous extent of length, straight or curved, without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point. 3. Long, narrow mark or band.
Line Conventions Standardization of lines used on technical drawings by line weight and style.
Line Weight Also called line width. The thickness of a line, characterized as thick or thin.
Long-Break Line A line which indicates that a very long objects with uniform detail is drawn foreshortened.
Manufacture To make something, especially on a large scale using machinery.
Measurement The process of using dimensions, quantity, or capacity by comparison with a standard in order to mark off, apportion, lay out, or establish dimensions.
Multi-View Drawing A drawing which contains views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes.
Object Line A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object.
Oblique Sketch A form of pictorial in which an object is represented as true width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle.
Orthographic Projection A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection.
Perspective Sketch A form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye.
Pictorial Sketch A sketch that shows an object’s height, width, and depth in a single view.
Plane A flat surface on which a straight line joining any two points would wholly lie.
Point A location in space.
Profile An outline of an object when viewed from one side.
Projection Line An imaginary line that is used to locate or project the corners, edges, and features of a three-dimensional object onto an imaginary two-dimensional surface.
Projection Plane An imaginary surface between the object and the observer on which the view of the object is projected and drawn.
Proportion 1. The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. 2. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure.
Scale 1. A straight-edged strip of rigid material marked at regular intervals that is used to measure distances. 2. A proportion between two sets of dimensions used to develop accurate, larger or smaller prototypes, or models.
Section Lines Thin lines used in a section view to indicate where the cutting plane line has cut through material.
Shading The representation of light and shade on a sketch or map.
Short-Break Line Line which shows where part is broken to reveal detail behind the part or to shorten a long continuous part.
Shape A two-dimensional contour that characterizes an object or area, in contrast to three-dimensional form.
Sketch A rough representation of the main features of an object or scene and often made as a preliminary study.
Solid A three-dimensional body or geometric figure.
Technical Working Drawing A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes.
Three-Dimensional Having the dimensions of height, width, and depth.
Tone The general effect of color or of light and shade in a picture.
Two-Dimensional Having the dimensions of height and width, height and depth, or width and depth only.
Vanishing Point A vanishing point is a point in space, usually located on the horizon, where parallel edges of an object appear to converge.
View Colloquial term for views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes in a multi-view drawing.
Width The measurement associated with an object’s side-to-side dimension.
Assess To thoroughly and methodically analyze accomplishment against specific goals and criteria.
Assessment An evaluation technique for technology that requires analyzing benefits and risks, understanding the trade-offs, and then determining the best action to take in order to ensure that the desired positive outcomes outweigh the negative consequences. Techniq
Brainstorm A group technique for solving problems, generating ideas, stimulating creative thinking, etc. by unrestrained spontaneous participation in discussion.
Client A person using the services of a professional person or organization.
Creativity The ability to make or bring a new concept or idea into existence; marked by the ability or power to create
Criteria A means of judging. A standard, rule, or test by which something can be judged.
Constraint 1. A limit to a design process. Constraints may be such things as appearance, funding, space, materials, and human capabilities. 2. A limitation or restriction.
Design 1. An iterative decision-making process that produces plans by which resources are converted into products or systems that meet human needs and wants or solve problems. 2. A plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of something b
Design Brief A written plan that identifies a problem to be solved, its criteria, and its constraints. The design brief is used to encourage thinking of all aspects of a problem before attempting a solution.
Design Process A systematic problem-solving strategy, with criteria and constraints, used to develop many possible solutions to solve a problem or satisfy human needs and wants and to winnow (narrow) down the possible solutions to one final choice.
Design Statement A part of a design brief that challenges the designer, describes what a design solution should do without describing how to solve the problem, and identifies the degree to which the solution must be executed.
Designer A person who designs any of a variety of things. This usually implies the task of creating drawings or in some ways uses visual cues to organize his or her work.
Engineer A person who is trained in and uses technological and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems.
Engineering Notebook An engineering notebook is a book in which an engineer will formally document, in chronological order, all of his/her work that is associated with a specific design project.
Innovation An improvement of an existing technological product, system, or method of doing something.
Invention A new product, system, or process that has never existed before, created by study and experimentation.
Piling-on An idea that produces a similar idea or an enhanced idea.
Problem Identification The recognition of an unwelcome or harmful matter needing to be dealt with.
Product A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process.
Prototype A full-scale working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.
Research The systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Created by: ggeiger
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