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Legal Psyc 7

Offenders and Offending

QuestionAnswer
What are the two original schools of thought called? Classical School in Criminology and Positivist School of Criminology
What school of thought is this? "emphasises factors that determine criminal behaviour, seeking to understand crime through scientific method and analysis. Positivist School of Criminology
What school of thought is this? "law-breaking occurs when people faced with a choice between behaving rightly and wrongly choose to behave wrongly. Classical School of Criminology
Which school of thought has a bit more of a scientific stance? Positivist School of Criminology
What school of thought looks at the influences, the types of things that might actually lead them to do that? Positivist School of Criminology
What school of thought describes criminals as wanting to do the crime and thinking that there are not many loses/cons of doing it so they go ahead and do it? Classical School of Criminology
Which school of thought includes emphasise on sociological factors, biological factors, psychological factors and environmental factors? Positivist School of Criminology
Which school of thought says that the criminal will find that the gains outweigh the loses for these people? Classical School of Criminology
Which school of thought emphasises philosophical concepts such as free will and hedonism (the pursuit of pleasure, sensual self-indulgence)? Classical School of Criminology
Which school of thought takes the stance that the punishment must fit the criminal? Positivist School of Criminology
Does validity of Criminal theories vary greatly? Yes
No one theory explains all forms of criminality. Many theories focus exclusively on v__________ crime. Many theories focus exclusively on men or women? So there are limitations in these theories violent, men
There are four different theories for reasons behind why criminals offend. What are these? Sociological Theories, Social-Psychological Theories, Psychological Theories, Biological Theories
Sociological Theories include two sub-theories called? Structured theories and Subcultural theories
What type of theory is this? "Proposes that crime is learned through social interaction and differs on what is learned and how it is learned Social-Psychological Theories
What type of theory is this? "Proposes that genetic influences, neuropsychological abnormalities and biochemical irregularities play a role in criminal behaviour Biological Theories
What type of theory is this? "Proposes that crime results from personality attributes that are uniquely possessed or possessed to a special degree, by the potential criminal. Psychological Theories
What type of theory is this? "That biological dispositions (such as genetic influences etc) are translated into specific criminal behaviour through environments and social interactions Biological Theories
What type of theory is this? "Looks at societal factors - person's interactions with their environment" Sociological Theories
Sociological Theories consist of both S__________ theories and S______________ theories Structural and Subcultural
With biological theories, most of the data is from ______ and ___________ studies? twin, adoption
With social-psychological theories, they attempt to bridge the gap between the e____________ism of sociological theories and the i____________ism of psychological and biological theories. So they are kind of in the mi________ Environmentalism, individualism, middle
What type of theory is this? "Propose that crime results from social and cultural forces that are external to any specific individual and exist prior to the criminal act" Sociological theories
What type of theory is this? "Suggests that crime emerges from social class, political, ecological or physical structures affecting large groups of people" Sociological theories
Control theories (where everyone would commit crime unless you control them not to, teach them not to commit crimes through operant conditioning where they associate neg. things with crime) is an example of what type of theory? Control theories
Which theory is kind of in the middle? Social-Psychological theories
Learning theory (bobo doll where people learn things - learn how to commit crimes and see no punishment or sees that it pays off) is an example of what type of theory? Social-psychological theory
Psychoanalytical Theory (ID, EGO, SUPER EGO - Freud) is a type of what type of theory? What is the other type of theory that is a psychological theory? Write these out Psychological theory, psychopathy
Which type of twin is formed when a fertilised egg splits into two? Monozygotic twins or Dizygotic twins? Monozygotic twins
Which twins are identical? Monozygotic
Dizygotic twins are formed when two separate eggs are fertilised by two s_________ sperm separate
Dizygotic are or are not usually identical? not
___________ twins share 100% of genetic material whereas _____________ twins share ___% of genetic material Monozygotic, dyzygotic, 50%
What does this refer to? "Percentage of twins that share the behaviour of interest. So if your committing crimes then is your twin doing the same thing?" Concordance rate
If the concordance rate for identical twins is significantly ________ than the concordance rate for fraternal twins, we can tentatively conclude that the behaviour (criminal tendencies) is genetically influenced. higher
There is a 60% concordance rate for ________________ twins compared to 20% concordance rate for _________ twins monozygotic, dizygotic
Does this refer to structure theories or subcultural theories? "dysfunctional social arrangements prevent people from achieving their goals in a legitimate ways" Structural Theories
What are some of the obstacles that get in the way of people abiding by the law? Poor education, Unemployment, Financial hardship, Disorganised communities
Subcultural theories are part of what type of theory? and suggest that criminal behaviour occurs because different behavioural norms are held by different groups and groups pressure their members to deviate from the norms that underlie criminal law Sociological theories
The MAOA Gene - is also sometimes called the ________ gene. This gene seems to be linked to ____________ behaviour but only if the environment is a ____________ one - so needs to be an interaction! criminal, criminal
So those who have the MAOA gene alone without a criminal environment is not enough. True or false? True
Gang culture pressuring their members to deviate from the norms that underlie criminal law is an example of what theory? And what is this a sub-theory of? Subcultural theory, Sociological theory
Write out the things that get inherited with the MAOA gene ....
What is the "strange phenomenon"? How adult antisocial behaviour virtually requires childhood antisocial behaviour yet, most antisocial youths dont go onto become antisocial adults
Antisocial behaviour = behaviour that goes against social _________ - not necessarily a crime norms
There are two options for why there is an Offending Peak (not including Moffits reasons), what are they? Option 1 is that theres a change in the number of people willing to offend (PREVALENCE) and Option 2 is that theres a change in the number of crimes that people are committing (INCIDENCE)
Write out written answer for Moffitt's theory questions .....
Created by: alicemcc33