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UTA 3632 Final Exam

UTA 3632 Foundations Final Exam

Clear Liquid Diet Clear fat-free broth, bouillon, coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, clear fruit juices, gelatin, fruit ices, popsicles
Full Liquid Diet As for clear liquid, with addition of smooth-textured dairy products (e.g., ice cream), strained or blended cream soups, custards, refined cooked cereals, vegetable juice, pureed vegetables, all fruit juices, sherbets, puddings, frozen yogurt
Pureed Diet As for clear and full liquid, with addition of scrambled eggs; pureed meats, vegetables, and fruits; mashed potatoes and gravy
Mechanical Soft Diet As for clear, full liquid, & pureed, with addition of cream soups, ground/finely diced meats, flaked fish, cottage cheese, cheese, rice, potatoes, pancakes, light breads, cooked vegies, cooked/canned fruits, bananas, soups, peanut butter, eggs (not fried)
Soft/Low Residue Diet Addition of low-fiber, easily digested foods such as pastas, casseroles, moist tender meats, and canned cooked fruits and vegetables; desserts, cakes, and cookies without nuts or coconut
High Fiber Diet Addition of fresh uncooked fruits, steamed vegetables, bran, oatmeal, and dried fruits
Low Sodium Diet 4-g (no added salt), 2-g, 1-g, or 500-mg sodium diets; vary from no added salt to severe sodium restriction (500-mg sodium diet), which requires selective food purchases
Low Cholesterol Diet 300 mg/day cholesterol, in keeping with American Heart Association guidelines for serum lipid reduction
Diabetic Diet Nutrition recommendations by the American Diabetes Association: focus on total energy, nutrient and food distribution; include a balanced intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; varied caloric recommendations to accommodate metabolic demands
Potassium Normal Values 3.5-5 mEq/L
Sodium Normal Values 136-145 mEq/L
Chloride Normal Values 98-106 mEq/L
Total Calcium Normal Values 8.4-10.5 mg/dL
Magnesium Normal Values 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Phosphate Normal Values 2.7-4.5 mg/dL
Bicarbonate (HCO3) Normal Values Arterial 22-26 mEq/L
pH Normal Values 7.35-7.45
PaCO2 Normal Values 35-45 mm Hg
PaO2 Normal Values 80-100 mm Hg
O2 Saturation Normal Values 95%-100%
Urine Specific Gravity Normal Values 1.0053-1.030
Supported Fowler's position head of the bed is elevated 45 to 60 degrees, and the patient's knees are slightly elevated without pressure to restrict circulation in the lower legs.
Supine Position Patient rests on back. Shoulders are supported, and the elbows are slightly flexed to control shoulder rotation. A foot support prevents footdrop and maintains proper alignment.
Prone Position Patient lies face or chest down. Pillow thin enough to prevent cervical fexion or extension and maintain alignment of lumbar spine. Ankles in dorsiflexion (using pillows or over mattress).
Side-Lying Position Patient rests on the side with the major portion of body weight on the dependent hip and shoulder. 30-degree lateral position is recommended for patients at risk for pressure ulcers.
Sims' Position Patient lies on side placeing the weight on the anterior ileum, humerus, and clavicle.
Autonomy Ability or tendency to function independently.
Beneficence Doing good or actively promoting doing good; one of the four principles of the ethical theory of deontology.
Nonmaleficence Fundamental ethical agreement to do no harm. Closely related to the ethical standard of beneficence.
Justice Ethical standard of fairness.
Fidelity Agreement to keep a promise.
Deontology Traditional theory of ethics that proposes to define actions as right or wrong based on the characteristics of fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice.
Health care proxy or durable power of attorney for health care (DPAHC) a legal document that designates a person or persons of one's choosing to make health care decisions when the patient is no longer able to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Tort Act that causes injury for which the injured party can bring civil action.
Negligence Careless act of omission or commission that results in injury to another.
Malpractice Professional negligence. Injurious or unprofessional actions that harm another.
Defamation of character the publication of false statements that result in damage to a person's reputation. Includes Slander & Libel.
Slander when one speaks falsely about another.
Libel the written defamation of character (e.g., charting false entries in a medical record).
Assault Unlawful threat to bring about harmful or offensive contact with another.
Battery Legal term for touching another's body without consent.
False imprisonment unjustified restraint of a person without legal warrant.
Identity confusion when people do not maintain a clear, consistent, and continuous consciousness of personal identity.
Role conflict when a person has to simultaneously assume two or more roles that are inconsistent, contradictory, or mutually exclusive.
Role ambiguity unclear role expectations, which makes people unsure about what to do or how to do it, creating stress and confusion.
Role strain combines role conflict and role ambiguity.
Role overload having more roles or responsibilities within a role than are manageable.
Role performance Way in which a person views his or her ability to carry out significant roles.
Matruational loss Loss, usually of an aspect of self, resulting from the normal changes of growth and development.
Situational loss Loss of a person, thing, or quality resulting from a change in a life situation, including changes related to illness, body image, environment, and death.
Actual loss Loss of an object, person, body part or function, or emotion that is overt and easily identifiable.
Perceived loss Loss that is less obvious to the individual experiencing it. Although easily overlooked or misunderstood, a perceived loss results in the same grief process as an actual loss.
Grief Form of sorrow involving the person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occurs as a response to an actual or perceived loss.
Normal (uncomplicated) grief a common, universal reaction characterized by complex emotional, cognitive, social, physical, behavioral, and spiritual responses to loss and death.
Anticipatory Grief Grief response in which the person begins the grieving process before an actual loss.
Disenfranchised grief Marginal or unsupported grief, when their relationship to the deceased person is not socially sanctioned, cannot be openly shared, or seems of lesser significance.
Ambiguous Loss a type of disenfranchised grief, occurs when the lost person is physically present but not psychologically available, as in cases of severe dementia or severe brain injury.
Complicated grief a person has a prolonged or significantly difficult time moving forward after a loss.
Exaggerated Grief exhibits self-destructive or maladaptive behavior, obsessions, or psychiatric disorders. Suicide is a risk for these people.
Delayed Grief A person's grief response is unusually delayed or postponed, often because the loss is so overwhelming that the person must avoid the full realization of the loss.
Masked Grief a grieving person behaves in ways that interfere with normal functioning but is unaware that the disruptive behavior is a result of the loss and ineffective grief resolution.
Stages of Dying denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
Stages of Mourning numbing, yearning and searching, disorganization and despair, and reorganization
Grief Tasks Task I: Accept the reality of the loss. Task II: Experience the pain of grief. Task III: Adjust to a world in which the deceased is missing. Task IV: Emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life.
Rando's processes recognizing the loss, reacting to the pain of separation, reminiscing, relinquishing old attachments, and readjusting to life after loss.
Dual Process model describes the everyday life experiences of grief as moving back and forth between loss-oriented and restoration-oriented activities.
Antibiotic Intraoperative Effects potentiate action of anesthetic agents
Anticoagulants Intraoperative Effects Alter normal clotting factors and thereby increase risk of hemorrhage
Antiarrhythmics Intraoperative Effects Can reduce cardiac contractility and impair conduction during anesthesia
Anticonvulstants Intraoperative Effects Can alter metabolism of anesthetic agents after long-term use
Corticosteroids Intraoperative Effects With prolonged use, cause atrophy of adrenal glands, which decreases body's ability to withstand stress
Insulin Intraoperative Effects Need for insulin preoperatively is reduced because of fasting status
Diuretics Intraoperative Effects Potentiate electrolyte and fluid imbalances
Antidepressants Intraoperative Effects Increase the hypotensive effects of anesthesia
Isotonic excercise cause muscle contractions and change in muscle length (e.g., walking, swimming, dance aerobics, jogging, bicycling)
Isometric exercise tightening or tensing muscles without moving body parts (e.g., quadriceps sets, contraction of gluteal muscle)
Resistive isometric exercise contracting muscle while pushing against a stationary object or resisting the movement of an object (e.g., push-ups, hip lifts)
Ligaments bind joints & connect bones and cartilage
Tendons connect muscle to bone
Friction Effects of rubbing or the resistance that a moving body meets from the surface on which it moves; a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.
Shear Force exerted against the skin while the skin remains stationary and the bony structures move.
Lordosis Exaggeration of anterior convex curve of lumbar spine. Congenital or temporary (e.g. pregnancy).
Kyphosis Increased convexity in curvature of thoracic spine. Congenital, Rickets/Osteoporosis, TB of Spine.
Torticollis Inclining of head to affected side, in which sternocleidomastoid muscle is contracted
Hypostatic pneumonia Pneumonia that results from fluid accumulation as a result of inactivity.
Atelectasis Collapse of alveoli, preventing the normal respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Four-point alternating gait gives stability to the patient but requires weight bearing on both legs. Each leg is moved alternately with each opposing crutch so three points of support are on the floor at all times.
Three-point alternating gait patient bears all of the weight on one foot. bears weight on both crutches and then on the uninvolved leg, repeating the sequence.
Two-point gait at least partial weight bearing on each foot. patient moves a crutch at the same time as the opposing leg so the crutch movements are similar to arm motion during normal walking.
Swing-through gait With weight placed on the supported legs, the patient places the crutches one stride in front and then swings to or through them while they support his or her weight.
PICOT Patient population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time.
-statin drug side effects GI-related (n/v, flatulence, constipation), Myopathy (muscle aches & pains)
Enculturation Socialization into one's primary culture as a child.
Acculturation Process of adapting to and adopting a new culture.
Biculturalism Identification equally with two or more cultures.
Assimilation To become absorbed into another culture and adopt its characteristics.
Nonopiod analgesics acetaminophen and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g., aspirin & ibuprofen)
Opioid analgesics Drug substance derived from opium or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain and that, with repeated use, may result in physical and psychological dependence (narcotic).
Adjuvants variety of medications that enhance analgesics or have analgesic properties that were originally unknown
NSAID side-effects gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency
Left-Sided HF s/s First: fatigue, breathlessness, dizziness, confusion (result of tissue hypoxia). Then: pulmonary congestion with crackles in base of lungs, hypoxia, SOB on exertion, cough, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Right-Sided HF s/s Weight gain, distended neck veins, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, and dependent peripheral edema.
Cough suppressant risks retention of pulmonary secretions, airway plugging, and atelectasis.
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood from the respiratory tract.
Cascade cough patient takes a slow, deep breath and holds it for 2 seconds while contracting expiratory muscles. Then he or she opens the mouth and performs a series of coughs throughout exhalation, thereby coughing at progressively lowered lung volumes.
Huff cough stimulates a natural cough reflex and is generally effective only for clearing central airways. While exhaling, the patient opens the glottis by saying the word huff. With practice he or she inhales more air and is able to progress to the cascade cough.
Quad cough for patients without abdominal muscle control (e.g., spinal cord injuries). While the patient breathes out with a maximal expiratory effort, the patient or nurse pushes inward and upward on the abdominal muscles toward the diaphragm, causing the cough.
Postural drainage Use of positioning along with percussion and vibration to drain secretions from specific segments of the lungs and bronchi into the trachea.
Oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal suctioning is used when the patient is able to cough effectively but unable to clear secretions by expectorating.
Orotracheal or nasotracheal suctioning is used when a patient with pulmonary secretions is unable to manage secretions by coughing and does not have an artificial airway present.
Tracheal suction is used when patient has an artificial airway uch as an endotracheal (ET) or tracheostomy tube.
Logroll Maneuver used to turn a reclining patient from one side to the other or completely over without moving the spinal column out of alignment.
Hyperemia (abnormal) Nonblanchable: Redness of the skin caused by dilation of the superficial capillaries. The redness persists when pressure is applied to the area, indicating tissue damage.
Hyperemia (normal) Blanchable: Redness of the skin caused by dilation of the superficial capillaries. When pressure is applied to the skin, the area blanches, or turns a lighter color.
Onset Time it takes after a medication is administered for it to produce a response
Peak Time it takes for a medication to reach its highest effective concentration
Trough Minimum blood serum concentration of medication reached just before the next scheduled dose
Duration Time during which the medication is present in concentration great enough to produce a response
Plateau Blood serum concentration of a medication reached and maintained after repeated fixed doses
# of drops per mL 15 drops (gtt)
# of mL per oz 30 mL
Created by: camellia