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Repro review_Rutledg

Where is sperm produced and stored? Sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubules and stored in the epididymis.
What is the role of testosterone? The male hormone testosterone is responsible for male secondary sex characteristics.
Where is seminal fluid produced? Seminal fluid is produced in the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper's gland.
What is the purpose of the male urethra? The male urethra serves the twofold purpose of conveying urine from the bladder and carrying the reproductive cells and secretions to the outside.
What are the layers of the uterus? The uterus consists of three layers: (1) Endometrium, the inner layer. (2) Myometrium, the middle layer. (3) Perimetrium, the outer layer.
True or False: The relationship between the menstrual cycle and the body's mechanisms of hormonal secretion, a decrease or increase in the activity of the hormonal glands can disturb menstruation. True
What is vital to prevent reinfection after PID? Discharge Planning and education about the disease process.
Why is pregnancy encouraged in the patient with endometriosis? Pregnancy is encouraged in the patient with endometriosis because it will slow the progress of the disorder and infertility is a complication as the condition continues.
What blood test is elevated in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? PSA or Prostate Specific Antigen.
What organism is responsible for Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)? Staphylococcus Aureus
At what age should young men be taught to perform monthly TSE (Testicular Self Examination)? Age 15
What is the function of the Cowper's glands? To secrete a mucous like fluid that lubricates the end of the penis in preparation for intercourse.
What female structures are contained in the vestibule? The clitoris, urethra, hymen and vaginal opening.
How many lobes does each breast contain? Each breast contains 15-20 lobes.
What are the external parts of the breast? The skin, areola and nipple are the external parts of the breast.
What are the internal structures of the breast? The mammary glands, lobes, adipose tissue, lactiferous duct/ sinus, muscle support system and lymphatic system.
What male reproductice organ stores sperm cells until they are mature? The epididymis and ductal system.
What female internal reproductive organ produces the egg cell and sex hormones? The ovaries.
What substance do the mammary glands secrete? Milk
What is the role of the scrotum? To provide a cooler home for the testes in order to assure sperm survival.
What are the signs and symptoms of endometriosis? Can be asymptomatic Bleeding into the peritineal cavity Menstrual irregularities Severe abdominal pain Dyspareunia Pain on defecation Rectal bleeding and pain
What are possible causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)? Can follow abortion, pelvic surgery, sexual intercourse, infection during intercourse.
What are the organisms that can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)? Gonococcus Streptococcus Staphylococcus Chlamydia Tubercle bacili
When do hydroceles occur? Most commonly occurs in males over 21 years of age.
What patient education would you provide in relation to preventing sexually transmitted diseases? Limit number of sexual partners Avoid contact during infectious periods Importance of personal hygeine Use mouthwash or gargle after oral sex Use barrier contraceptives use water based lubricants Void after intercourse Avoid excess douching
Management of epidiymitis would include what interventions? Ice Scrotal elevation Bedrest during the acute phase Antibiotics
What is removed during a hysterectomy? The uterus
What is removed during an oopherectomy? The ovary or ovaries
What is removed during a salpingectomy? The fallopian tube or tubes
What is removed during a salpingoopherectomy? One or both fallopian tubes and ovaries
What is removed during a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoopherectomy? The uterus, both fallopian tubes and both ovaries.
Why would a woman have a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy but not oopherectomy? The ovaries secrete estrogen. By leaving the ovaries, it prevents the need for hormone replacement therapy and vasomotor symptoms of menopause.
What are the advantages of a vaginal hysterectomy? No wound dehiscence Less pain Complications less likely Shorter hospitalization No abdominal scar
What are the disadvantages of a vaginal hysterectomy? Limited view of the operative field Increased risk of bleeding Increased risk of postoperative infection Can't be used in cases of fibroids or enlarged uterine size
What is the preferred method to explore the pelvic cavity and remove the uterus? Abdominal hysterectomy
A postpartum patient returns for her follow-up appointment and is complaining of leukorrhea, backache and dyspareunia. What is most likely the cause? Cervicitis which can result from lacerations during childbirth.
What is endometriosis? Endometrial tissue appears outside the uterus.
What are recommendations for women with endometriosis? Pregnancy, surgery, antiovulatory medications, androgens and oral contraceptives.
What part of the female sexual anatomy is composed of thousands of nerve endings and located at the anterior end of the vulva? Clitoris
What is the medical term for painful menses? Dysmenorrhea
What percentage of lumps are found by women performing BSE (Breast Self Examination)? 90%
What noninvasive diagnostic test is frequently done to differentiate a fluid filled cyst from a solid mass? Ultrasound
How is endometrial cancer confirmed? Biopsy
What is the term used for a lesion seen in genital herpes? Vesicle
What is fibrocystic disease? Benign tumors of the breast, usually occuring in women 30-50 years of age and is rare in post menopausal women suggesting the occurence is related to ovarian activity. Menopause resolves the condition.
What layer of the uterus undergoes changes during menses and pregnancy? Endometrium
What are the signs and symptoms of uterine displacement? Backache Muscle strain Leukorrhea Heaviness in the pelvic area Fatigue Stress incontinence Dyspareunia
What are symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)? Flu like symtoms Sudden elevated temperature Vomiting Diarrhea Abdominal Pain Myalgia Hypotension Signs of septic shock
What diagnostic tests are used in the diagnosis of Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)? vaginal smear leukocytosis thrombocytopenia Renal function tests (BUN and creatinine elevated) Liver function tests (bilirubin, ALT, AST, CPK increased)
What drug taken by pregnant mothers in the 1950s resulted in an increased incidence of cervical cancer in their female offspring? DES (Diethylstilbesterol)
What is a fistula? Abnormal opening between two organs or an abnormal tract or opening to the external part of the body from another organ.
What is a vesicovaginal fistula? Opening between the bladder and vagina
What is a urethrovaginal fistula? Opening between the urethra and vagina
What is a rectovaginal fistula? Opening between the rectum and vagina
What is testicular torsion? Twisting of the spermatic cord resulting in kinking of the artery and compromised blood flow to the testicle
What is the hallmark sign of endometrial cancer? abnormal uterine bleeding
What causes an enterocele? Protrusion of the intestinal wall into the vagina
What is a leiomyoma? Common benign tumors arising from the muscle tissue of the uterus.
What are other terms for leiomyomas? Fibroids Myomas Fibromyomas Fibroids
A patient has a cheesy vaginal discharge. What is most likely the causitive agent? Candidiasis Albicans
What is most likely the causative bacteria in acute mastitis? Staphylococcus Aureus
What is the most commonly occuring sexually transmitted disease in the US? Chlamydia is the most common (not reportable). Gonnorhea is the most reported.
What laboratory tests would be ordered to confirm a diagnosis of syphilis? VDRL (venereal disease research lab slide test) RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin Test) Both check for antibodies specific to syphilis
What are the signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis? Green, grey malodorous frothy and profuse vaginal discharge, Dysuria, Edema, Vaginal Tenderness, Vaginal Bleeding.
What is the treatment for trichomoniasis? Flagyl
What is the medical management for impotence? Assessment of the causative factors, Viagra or similar medications, hormonal (testosterone) replacement and mechanical devices
What is the goal of treatment for vaginitis? cure infection, prevent reinfection, prevent complications, prevent infection of sexual partner
What is the medical management for vaginitis? vaginal suppositories, ointments or creams douching may be prescribed refrain from intercourse or use a condom
What diagnostic tests are used to determine PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)? Gram stain of secretions Culture and sensitivity (C&S) laparoscopy ultrasound Leukocyte count ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)
What three areas are nursing interventions focused on for the patient with endometriois? pain, reducing anxiety and pre/post operative care
What nursing interventions would be implemented to address pain in the client with endometriosis? Medications Bed Rest Sitz bath Warm compresses or heat
When should a patient with endometriosis notify thier physician? pregnancy increased pain heavy menstrual flow
What is a cystocele? Bulging of the bladder into the vagina
What is a rectocele? Bulging of the rectum into the vagina
What are some causes of cervical cancer? HPV Herpes Multiple sexual partners Genital warts Sex at an early age Smoking
What are predisposing factors for women at high risk for breast cancer? Gender Race Menopause after 55 North American or Northern European decent
What is the purpose of sentinel lymph node mapping? Identifies the first lymph node likely to drain cancerous cells
What is a partial mastectomy? The quadrant containing the lump is removed
What is the medical management for epididymitis? Bed Rest Scrotal support Cold for edema/discomfort Antibiotic therapy Incision and Drainage (I&D) if abcess forms
What is phimosis? A condition where the prepuce is too small to allow retraction of the foreskin over the glans; often congenital.
What are contraindications for a patient on contraceptive therapy? Thromboembolic disease Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding Pregnancy Smoking
What medications are avoided in the patient taking sildenafil? Nitrates
What would the nurse monitor in a patient taking androgens? Fluid retention
What are common side effects of Depo-Provera? weight gain, headache, nervousness, decreased libido, breast tenderness, depression, breakthrough bleeding
Which of the following is not a side effect of medications taken by a patient with endometriosis? a. breast tenderness b. breakthrough bleeding c. weight loss d. abnormal swelling Weight loss Oral contraceptives and gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of endometriosis. Side effects include weight gain, breakthrough bleeding, breast tenderness and edema.
The nurse is caring for a patient undergoing treatment for cancer. She is now diagnosed with a GYN fistula. She asks you what is the most frequent cuase of this condition. As the nurse, you know that in this situation, the cause is related to what? Tissue breakdown due to radiation.
Causes of cervicitis include all except? a. Vaginal infections b. Childbirth or abortions with lacerations c. Frequent douching or forgotten tampons d. Pap smears or wearing cotton underwear Pap smears or wearing cotton underwear
What patient teaching would be included for a woman using a vaginal suppository to treat vaginitis? Apply the medication at bedtime and remain recumbant for at least 30 minutes. Keep peri area clean and dry Wash hands before and after administration
What are the requirements for taking a sexual history? Provision of privacy, An atmosphere of trust and confidentiality, Nurse's comfort with their own sexuality, Nonjudgmental approach
Define Amenorrha Absence of menstrual flow
Define Dysmenorrhea painful menstruation
Define Menorrhagia excessive bleeding in amount and duration
Define Metrorrhagia Bleeding between menstrual periods
What causes senile or atrophic vaginitis? Low estrogen levels cause the vulva and vagina to atrophy.
What is the biggest complication of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)? Sterility
Cervix remains at the normal axis, but the body of the uterus is directed towards the sacrum. Retroversion
The body of the uterus is on the cervix. Retroflexion
The cervix comes down to the vagina First degree uterine prolapse
The cervix comes into the vagina Second degree uterine prolapse
The uterus protrudes from the vagina Third degree uterine prolapse
Created by: gimpy1983