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Repro Cancer

MAMC exam 8 cancer of the reproductive system

QuestionAnswer
cervical cancer has higher incidence among hispanic american african american native american
cervical cancer increased risks STI HPV sexual activity at early age multiple sex partners smoking
stages of cervical cancer dysplasia carcinoma in situ (CIS) invasive carcinoma
symtpoms of cervical cancer leukorrhea spotting between periods postcoital bleeding feeling of pressure on the bladder or bowel pain radiating to lower extremitites
diagnosis of cervical cancer pap smear cervical inspection cervical biopsy
treatment of cervical cancer prevention removal of affected area surgery/radiation/chemotherapy
nursing management for cervical cancer emotional support comfort measures strict I&O assess vaginal drainage/bleeding treatment concerns
cervical cancer prognosis & 5 year survival rate good if treated early 92% for localized stage
endometrial cancer most common female reproductive malignancy more common in postmenopausal women risk increases with high-level estrogen
endometrial cancer symptoms bleeding pelvic pain - usually late symptom
endometrial cancer diagnosis pelvic & rectal exam endometrial biopsy
endometrial cancer treatment hysterectomy radiation chemotherapy
endometrial cancer nursing management emotoinal support explain treatment & procedures comfort measures patient/family education
endometrial cancer prognosis slow growing late metastasis bleeding is early sign good if treated early 5 year survival rate 83%
ovarian cancer 4th most common cause of cancer death in women risk increases with age early stages asymptomatic
ovarian cancer symptoms vague ABD discomfort (early) pelvic/ABD pain GI symptoms menstrual irregularities pressure on the bladder/frequency/urgency ascites (late) weight gain/loss
ovarian cancer diagnosis early detection difficult pelvic exam US & CT scan laparotomy CA 125
ovarian cancer treatment oophorectomy external/internal radiation chemotherapy TAH
ovarian cancer nursing management emotional support explain treatment/procedures patient & family education provide pre/post-operative care
ovarian cancer prognosis >75% diagnosed with advanced disease 5 year survival 46% if diagnosed early & localized - survival rate 93%
radiation therapy (external) body marked patient education - protect skin, diet, side effects
internal radiation therapy minimize exposure pregnant avoid exposure drainage & dressings check for dislodged implants educate family diversional activities
general nursing considerations for cancer teach early detection listen carefully to the fears & concerns patient teaching - pre/postop, follow-up care
nursing diagnoses for cancer pain anxiety altered urinary elimination risk for infection r/t chemotherapy risk for fluid volume deficit self-esteem disturbance potential for sexual dysfunction
etiology of breast cancer most common malignancy o fwomen in U.S. ranks 2nd among cancer deaths in women cause not known
primary risk factors of breast cancer female older than 50 North American or Northern European decent family history
pathophysiology of breast cancer occurs most often in the upper/outer quadrants of the breast metastasis via the lymphatic system & blood stream rapid-growing cancer have a much shorter preclinical course & a greater tendency to metastasize
breast cancer prognosis positive/negative axillary lymph node involvement is the single most important after disease spreads beyond breasts, survival rate drops dramatically prognosis related to stage of disease & age
frequency of breast assessments per American Cancer Society monthly BSE's begininning at age 20 CBE's every 3 years between 20-40 CBE's every year after 40 annual mammograms beginning at age 40
signs & symptoms of breast cancer skin reddeded or dark puckering or dimpling of tissue nipple discharge axillary tenderness nipple or skin retraction peeling or flaking on nipple lump or thicking that feels different from surrounding tissue
breast cancer procedures & diagnostic tools mammography US MRI PET sentinel lymph node mapping biopsy
which diagnostic test is used to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer? biopsies
how breast cancer staged based on tumor size, node involvement, metastases
stage 0 breast cancer carcinomain situ confined to milk duct or lobule no lymph nodes affected no metastasis
stage I breast cancer tumor < 2cm lymph nodes neg no metastasis
stage IIA breast cancer tumor <5cm may have spread up to 3 axillary nodes no distant cancer spread
stage IIB breast cancer can be >5cm can involve up to 3 lymph nodes no organ metastasis
stage IIIA breast cancer >5cm can involve 3-10 lymph nodes no distant organ metastasis
stage IIIB breast cancer spread to chest wall or skin, regardless of size lymph node involvement no distant metastasis
stage IIIC breast cancer same as IIIB except >10 lymph node involvement
stage IV breast cancer tumor of any size nodal involvement metastasis to distant organs
lumpectomy removal of tumor
simple mastectomy removal of entire breast - skin flap retained to cove rarea - both pectoralis major & pectoralis minor muscles left intact
modified radical mastectomy overlying skin, nipple, & pectoralis minor muscle are removed pectoralis major remains intact
breast cancer medical intervention radiation chemotherapy
breast cancer nursing interventions preoperative care & education offer counseling provide postoperative care post mastectomy exercises resources available
cancer of the testis assessment/diagnosis enlarged scrotum firm, painless, smooth mass patient may speak of a feeling of heaviness
cancer of the testis medical management radical inguinal orchiectomy radioation or chemotherapy generally follow surgery retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
cancer of the testis nursing interventions teach males to perform month TSE begininning at age 15
cancer of the penis rare generally occurs in men over 50 - uncircumcised - poor hygiene - Hx of STI
cancer of the penis assessment/diagnosis painless tumor wart-like growth/ulceration on the glans under the prepuce metastasis commonly occurs to the inguinal nodes & adjacent organs biopsy confirms diagnosis
cancer of the penis medical management surgical intervention
cancer of the penis nursing interventions emotional support monitor urine output elevate scrotum comfort measures
what age group most at risk for testicular cancer? men 15-35 years of age
testicular self-exam (TSE) method for early detection of tumors of testis priority for care of patients who have or are at risk for a tumor of the testis monthly basis begininning at age 15
perform TSE after ____ or ____ bath or shower
during TSE check skin for color, contour, breaks in the skin
the ______ scrotal sac is usually larger left
how to perform a TSE grasp scrotum with both hands gently palpate the testis between the thumb & fingers
during a TSE, how should the testis feel? firm but somewhat resilient, smooth, egg-shaped, & mobile
during a TSE, how should the epididymis feel? like a soft tube
Created by: ealongo