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chapter1science test

chapter 1 science test

element any substances that can not be broken down into simpler substance
atom the smallest unit of an element
compound two or more elements that are chemically combined
molecule the smallest unit of most compounds
organic compound a compound that contains carbon
inorganic compound a compound that does not contain carbon
carbohydrates energy-rich organic compounds, such as sugars and starches, that are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
protein large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
amino acid small molecules that are linked together chemically to form proteins
enzyme a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
lipid-energy rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
nucleic acid a very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life
dna the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
rna a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
cell the basic unit if structure and function in a living thing
microscope an instrument that makes small objects look larger
compound microscope a light microscope that has more than one lens
cell theory a widely accepted explanation of the relationships between cells and living things
magnification the ability to make things look larger than they really are
convex lens the ability to make thinigs look larger than they are
resolution the ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object
organelle a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell. some produce energy, build and transport needed materials, and store and recycle waste.
cell wall a rigid layer of nonliving material that sorrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. it is made of material called cellulose
cell membrane a cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
nucleus a cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities
chromatin material in cells that contain DNA and carries genetic information
cytoplasm the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; in organism without a nucleus, the region located inside the cell membrane.
mitochondrion rod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's function
endoplasmic reticulum a cell structure that form a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
ribosomes a small grain-like structure in the cell cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made
golgi body a structure in a cell that recieves proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell
chloroplast a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that capturesenergy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
vacuole a water-filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area
lysosome a small round cell structure that contains chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones
selectively permeable a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, whle others cannot
diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
active transport the movement of materials through a cell memnbrane using energy
Created by: briemarie7