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Science Review

6th grade science review for CRCT

What three layers make up the mantle? Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere
What are the two types of crusts? Oceanic and Continental
Why is the Inner Core solid? The pressure is great which turns it into a solid.
What are the three types of rocks? Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
How are igneous rocks formed? Through the cooling and solidifying of magma or lava
What are the two types of igneous rocks and how are they formed? Intrusive- cooling of magma (in Earth) Extrusive- cooling of lava (on the surface)
What two factors make a Metamorphic rock? Heat and Pressure
What are two types of Metamorphic rocks and how can you tell them apart? Foliated- Minerals are organized in layers or patterns NonFoliated- Minerals are not in any obvious pattern
What are the five actions that make a Sedimentary rock? Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Compaction, Cementation
What is the law of Superposition? The oldest sedimentary rocks are found at the bottom while the top are the newest.
If you find a seashell on top of a mountain, then how could this fossil help you know what the Terrain was like in the past. You could infer that the mountain was once submerged in the water.
What is the Continental Drift? The theory that states that the separated continents were once joined to a supercontinent called Pangea and have slowly been moving away from each other.
What is the Plate Tectonics theory? A theory that states that the Earth's surface is broken up into pieces called tectonic plates that are in constant motion due to convection currents in the mantle.
What is weathering? What are two types of weathering? Weathering is the process of rock being broken down into pieces called sediment. The two types are chemical and Physical.
What is Erosion? What is deposition? Erosion- when sediment is moved Deposition- when sediment is laid down
What are four ways that humans cause bad erosion and natural disasters? Mining, Deforestation, Farming, Constuction
List the layers of the soil from top to bottom. (Litter), Topsoil (Horizon O), Subsoil (Horizon A), Horizon B, Bedrock
Which soil layer contains the most amount of humus? Topsoil/Horizon O
Name the three boundary types, and the stress, faults and results associated with them. -Divergent Boundary,tension, Normal Fault, Mid-Ocean Ridge and rift valleys -Convergent, compression, Reverse Fault, MTNS, ocean trenches -Transform Boundary, Shearing, Strike-slip fault, Earthquakes
What percent of Earth is Water? WHat percent is Saltwater? 71% of Earth is water, 97% is saltwater
What contains most of our freshwater? Glaciers, 76%
List the freshwater sources and their percentages from greatest to least. GLaciers-76%, Shallow Groundwater-12%, Deep Groundwater- 11%, Rivers+Lakes- .34%, Water Vapor- .037%
When you go to the beach, what geographic ocean feature are you standing on? the Continental Shelf
What geographic ocean feature comes after the Continental Shelf? The Continental Slope
What is a Seamount? A mountain with a volcanic origin that doesn't break the surface of the water.
What is the Mid-Ocean Ridge? A chain of mountains (peaks) at a divergent boundary which is caused by Sea-Floor Spreading.
What is the Abyssal Plain? A large, flat plain in the water
What is sea-floor spreading? The theory that new oceanic crust is made from a divergent boundary (or trench) which pushes older crust and makes it subduct into the mantle.
What are the three layers of the ocean? Surface Zone, Transition Zone (Twilight Zone), Deep Zone
What are the characteristics of the Surface Zone? Warm Temperature, High Salinity, Lots of Sunlight, Little Pressure Sharks, dolphins and most of the sea creatures live here.
What are the characteristics of the Transition Zone? Cool Temperatures, Medium Salinity and Pressure, little sunlight Jellys, Squid, and Octopi live here
What are the characteristics of the Deep Zone? Cold Temperatures, Little Salinity, NO sunlight, HUGE pressure Sea life here includes Blobfish and Angler Fish
What two actions keep the salinity level the same? Evaporation and Condensation
What are waves and surface currents caused by? Wind
In what ocean zone do most surface currents occur in? Surface Zone (several hundred meters or less from the top of ocean)
What are Deep currents caused by? Changes in density
What two (or three) factors help determine differing densities? (Pressure), Salinity and temperature
Tides are caused by the interaction of what three things? Earth, Sun and Moon
The gravitational pull of what two things act on Earth's oceans to make tides? Sun and Moon
What are the two types of tides and what is the difference between them? Neap tide- When there is the smallest difference between a high and low tide Spring Tide- when there is the largest difference between the high and low tides.
"The Sun, Moon, and Earth are aligned" What type of tide is this showing? Spring Tide
"The Earth has the Sun to the left of it and the moon to the top of it" What tide is the description above showing? Neap Tide
What terms are used to describe an air mass's temperature and humidity? Martime- wet (humidity) Tropical- Warm (Temperature) Polar- Cold (Temperature) Continental- Dry (Humidity)
Tornadoes are made when what type of air rises? When do tornadoes mostly form? When Warm and HUmid air rises. They form in the Spring and Summer time.
True or False. "Hurricanes do not lose energy over land" FALSE!!! ***They get their energy above tropical waters. Without water vapor, they begin to dissapear!*
What is the process that turns water into water vapor? Evaporation
What process has water vapor condense to form clouds which eventually gets heavy? Condensation
When clouds become heavy and release the water collected in the clouds, what process is occurring? Precipitation
What are the 4 types of precipitation? Rain, Hail, Sleet, Snow
When water finds its way back to a water source, what is it called? Runoff
What powers the water cycle? The Sun
What are the three types of heat transfer? Convection, radiation, and Conduction
When the Sun powers the water cycle, what type of heat transfer is taking place? Radiation
When you touch a pot above a stove and it is hot, what heat transfer occurred? Conduction
When hot fluids rise and cold fluids sink in a cell, what heat transfer is taking place? Convection
What is wind caused by? The uneven/unequal heating of the Earth's atmosphere
What is the difference between a Renewable and a Nonrenewable resource? A renewable resource is a resource that is being used at the same rate as its being replaced while a nonrewable resource is a resource that is being used at a much faster rate than it is being replaced.
What are three fossil fuels that are main sources of energy when burnt? Natural gas, oil and coal
What are some ways that we are trying use to have cleaner energy? Wind mills (wind power), hydroelectricity (dams), solar energy (solar panels), geothermal energy, nuclear energy etc.
What heats up and cools down faster - land or water? Land
What is the difference between local and global winds? Local winds are winds over short distances and are affected by geographic features while global winds are winds over long distances like the jet stream
What are two types of local winds? Sea breeze and Land breeze
When do each type of local winds happen? Land breeze- night sea breeze- day
What causes the different temperatures around the world? The tilt of Earth's axis
The more dense an object is, the stronger its _____ gravitational pull
What keeps us from being sucked into the Sun? Inertia
What is Inertia? The principal that states that when an object is at rest, it will stay at rest unless an outside force is acted upon it and when an object is in motion, it will stay in motion unless an outside force acts upon it
What two principles keep an object in an orbit? Inertia and Gravity
Name each moon in order starting from a New Moon. New Moon, Waxing Crescent, 1st Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full moon, Waning Gibbous, 3rd Quarter, Waning Crescent,
A solar eclipse is an eclipse where you can't see what? the Sun
A lunar eclipse is an eclipse where you can;t see what? the Moon
Describe the order of the Sun, Moon, and Earth in a Solar Eclipse Sun, Moon, Earth
Describe the order of the Sun, Moon, and Earth in a Lunar Eclipse Sun, Earth, Moon
Order the following terms from least to greatest: Star, Planet, Universe, Galaxy, Solar System Planet, Star, Solar System, Galaxy, Universe
What is a comet made of and what is a feature that can distinguish it from an asteriod and a meteor? A comet is made of dust and ice and its tail is what makes it unique.
What is an Asteriod made of? Rock and Metal
What is the difference between a meteoriod and an asteriod? Meteriods are pieces of an Asteriod
What is the difference between a Meteoriod, Meteor, and a Meteorite Meteoriod: piece of asteriod in space Meteor: Meteriod burning up in our atmosphere (shootng stars) Meteorite: Meteor that hits the Earth's surface
What is the hottest planet? Venus
What planet has evidence that it once supported life? Mars
What planet has life and liquid water? Earth
What is the biggest planet? Jupiter
What planet is on its side? Uranus
What planet has a retrograde rotation? Venus
What planet has really large and visible rings? Saturn
What are planets categorized as? Terrestrial and Gas Giants
What separates the Terrestrial Planets from the Gas Giants? Asteriod Belt
Order the planets from closest to furthest away from the Sun. Mercury,Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
What planet has the Great Blue Spot? Neptune
What planet has the Great red spot? Jupiter
Order the planets from size from smallest to largest. Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter
Who came up with the Geocentric theory and what was it? Ptolemy; It was a theory stating that the Earth was the center of the universe.
What was the Heliocentric theory and who cam up with it? Copernicus; a theory stating that the Sun is the center of our solar system (right) and the universe (wrong)
What two pieces of evidence disproved the Geocentric theory? That Venus goes through Phases and that Jupiter has four moons.
How old is the universe? 13.7 billion years old
What is the Big Bang theory? A theory that states that the universe was once a small dot that expanded everywhere at once.
What are the three types of galaxies? Irregular, Spiral, Elliptical
What galaxy do we live in? Milky Way
What type of galaxy is the Milky Way? Spiral
Created by: Wicked101
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