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yearly review

wave Any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or empty space
medium Substance through which a wave can travel
vibration complete back & forth motion of an object
lontitudinal wave Waves that need a medium
electromagnetic wave Waves that transfer energy without a medium
transverse wave Waves where particles vibrate in an up & down motion, perpendicular to the direction of the wave
compression When particles crowd together in a longitudinal wave
trough The lowest point between each crest
crest the highest point of a transverse wave
rarefraction area where particles in a longitudinal wave are spread apart
mechanical wave wave that needs a medium
amplitude maximum distance the particles of a waves' medium vibrate from their rest position
frequency number of waves produced in a given amount of time
wavelength distance from any point on a wave to an identical point on the next wave
wave speed the speed at which a wave travels through a medium
reflection bouncing back of a wave
transparent matter that allows light to pass through and produce an image. You can see through
transluscent matter that allows light but not an image to come through
opaque matter that does not allow light or an image to pass through. You can not see through it.
refraction bending of a wave
diffraction change in direction of a wave
loudness the extent to which you can hear a sound
pitch how high or low a sound is
iris colorerd part of the eye
cornea membrane that protects the eye
middle ear this is where the stirrup, anvil, and hammer are found
smooth, hard surface this type of surface is best for reflecting
color deficiency color blind
atom smallest part of an element
100 this is about the number of elements on the periodic table
element substances that can not be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
solid state of matter that has a definite shape and volume
liquid state of matter that has definite volume but not definite shape
gas state of matter without definite shape or volume
volume amount of space matter takes up
mass amount of matter an object has
matter anything that takes up space
spread apart and move faster what happens as atoms are heated
solubility property of a solute to dissolve
energy the ability to do work
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
mechanical energy energy of motion and position (potential and kinetic)
thermal energy energy related to temperature
electrical energy energy of moving electrons
heat energy transferred between two objects of different temperatures
warmer to cooler how does heat travel
conduction transfer of energy from one object to another by direct contact
convection transfer of thermal energy by circulation of liquid or gas
radiation transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
ultraviolet rays when your body absorbs them, you become warmer
rotation spin of a body on its axis that causes day and night
orbit path a body follows as it travels around another body in space
revolution one complete trip along an orbit that takes about a year
ellipse an elongated circle
Newton described force of gravity
inertia this is why the moon doesn't crash
Earth's tilt and revolution around the sun this causes seasons
support life because Earth has liquid water, an atmosphere and reasonable temperatures, it can do this
new moon phase of moon where it is not visible
waxing when the moon appears to be getting larger in the sky
waning when the moon appears to be getting smaller in the sky
lunar eclipse Earth comes between the sun and moon
solar eclipse when the moon comes between the Earth and sun
eclipse when the shadow of one celestial body fall on another
a month It takes about this long for the moon to go through its cycles
tides daily changes in the level of the oceans
high tides places where the oceans bulge
tidal range difference between levels of ocean water at high tide and low tide
spring tide largest daily range occurring at full moon and new moon
neap tide smallest daily tidal range occurring during 1st and 3rd quarter
Side facing the moon this is the part of the Earth that the moon has the strongest pull on
crust thin layer of hard rock that is the thinnest layer of the Earth that is also the least dense
Core innermost layer of the Earth made of iron and nickel that is the densest layer.
mantle thickest layer of the Earth that is made out of soft material
nitrogen and oxygen Earth's atmosphere is made up mostly of these two elements
oceanic and continental The crust is divided into these two plates
plate tectonics the shifting of the Earth's plates
subduction when one plate is forced under another plate
fault lines or plate boundaries where you find most earthquqkes and volcanoes
lava molten rock that has erupted from a volcano
magma molten rock inside a volcano
seismology the branch of science that studies earthquakes
P waves the fastest waves that travel back and forth
S waves second waves to arrive
surface waves slowest waves that cause the most damage from an earthquake
divergent boundary when plates pull apart from each other
convergent boundary when plates run into each other
transform boundary when plates slide past each other
richter scale measures the magnitude of earthquakes
soil a loose mixture of rock fragments, organic material, water and air that can support plant growth
parent rock a rock formation that is the source of the soil
bedrock layer of rock beneath the soil
soil structure the arrangement of soil particles
soil fertility soil's ability to supply nutrients to a plant
soil horizons layers of horizontal rock
transpiration the loss of water through a plant's leaves
erosion the transporting of soil by wind, water. or other means
terracing using a stair step approach on a hill for planting crops to prevent erosion.
countour plowing plowing diagonally on hills to prevent erosion
crop roation method farmers use to reduce nutrient depletion by planting different crops year after year.
photosynthesis process by which plants make food by taking in carbon dioxide and expelling oxygen
cellular respiration process in which cells use oxygen to get energy
petal the colorful part of the flower
pistil the female reproductive part of a flower
stamen the male reproductive part of a flower
anther top of the stamen where pollen is found
sepal modified leaves that protect the flower
ovary eggs are found in this part of the flower
humus dark organic material that is the remains of plant snd animals.
chlorophyll green pigment that absorbs energy in plants
stoma opening in a leaf's epidermis & cuticle
pangaea the name given to the continents when they were supposedly connected as one giant super continent
ecology the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another in the environment
biotic describes living factors in the environment
abiotic describes nonliving part of the environment
population a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific area
community all of the populations of species in the same habitat that interact with each other
ecosystem a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
biosphere part of Earth where life exists
herbivore organism that eats only plants
carnivore organisms that eats only animals
omnivore organism that eats both plants and animals
producers make their own food (plants)
consumers eat to make energy
decomposers break down the tissue of dead organisms (fungi, mushrooms, bacteria)
food chain pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms
food web diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
energy pyramid triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem's loss of energy which results as energy passes through the ecosytem's food chain
prey organism that is killed and eaten by another organism
predator an organism that eats all or part of an organism
tropism a plant's bending or moving toward or away from a stimulus (like light)
dormancy period of inactivity
pillow lava Lava that is formed underwater
Created by: kimhanson