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Normal Serum Levels

Normal values and questions

QuestionAnswer
Sodium Na+ 135-145 mEq/L
Potassium K+ 3.5-5 mEq/L
Calcium Ca2+ 8.5-10.5 mEq/L
Magnesium Mg2+ 1.6-2.6 mEq/L
Chloride Cl- 95-105 mEq/L
Phosphate PO4- 1.7-2.6 mEq/L
Bicarbonate HCO3- 22-26 mEq/L
Na+ < 135 mEq/L Hyponatremia
Na+ > 145 mEq/L Hypernatremia
K+ < 3.5 mEq/L Hypokalemia (low potassium)
K+ > 5.0 mEq/L Hyperkalemia
Ca2+ < 8.5 mq/dL Hypocalcaemia
Ca2+ mEq/L > 10.5 mq/dL Hypercalcaemia
Mg+ < 1.3 mEq/L Hypomagnesaemia
Mg2+ > 2.1 mEq/L Hypermagnesemia
PO4- < 1.7 mEq/L Hypophosphatemia
PO4- > 2.6 mEq/L Hyperphosphatemia
Normal pH serum level 7.35-7.45
pH > 7.45 alkalosis
pH < 7.35 acidosis
Normal PCO2 35-45 mmHg
PCO2 < 35 (too little acid) respiratory alkalosis
PCO2 > 45 (too much acid) respiratory acidosis
Normal HCO3- 22-26 mEq/L
HCO3- < 22 (too little base) metabolic acidosis
HCO3- > 26 (too much base) metabolic alkalosis
intravascular Fluid within the blood, transports RBC
transcellular fluid CSF, pleural, peritoneal, synovial, & digestive fluids
Osmosis -- NO ATP required less concentration to higher concentration
Diffusion -- NO ATP required High concentration to a lower concentration
Filtration -- NO ATP required high pressure to lower pressure
Osmotic pressure NO ATP required the power of a solution to draw water
ADH antidiuretic hormone
ADH is released from pituitary gland
ADH causes the kidneys to retain fluid when blood volume is low excrete fluid when the volume is in excess
ADH is released in response to Fever, pain, stress, & some ovoid use
the ratio of Carbonic acid and Sodium Bicarbonate is 1:20
pH below 6.9 or above 7.8 is generally FATAL
pH is too acidic Lungs remove CO2 by rapid, deep breathing (reduces CO2 available to make carbonic acid)
pH is too alkaline Lungs conserve CO2 by shallow, slow breathing
Serum pH is acidic the kidneys Conserve bicarbonate to neutralize
Serum pH is alkaline the kidneys Excrete bicarbonate to lower the amount of base
How long does it take the Renal (kidney) mechanism to work? Three days
Hyplvolemia Loss of Fluids and electrolytes EFC (surgery, trauma, or uterine rupture)
Dehydration State of negative fluid balance
What % of sudden loss of body fluid is usually FATAL? 15%
Dehydration--Think? increased Heart Rate & increased Temperature
Who's most at risk for Deficient Fluid? Elderly, Children, Infants Any patients that have continued fluid loss (NV, fever, diabetes insipidious)
normal pO2 80-100 mmHg
Normal O2 saturation 95-100%
Normal base excess + or - 2
1st step to ABG analysis Is pH out of range (7.34-7.45)
2nd step to ABG analysis Is pCO2 normal (35-45 mmHg)
3rd step to ABG analysis Is the HCO3- out of range (22-26 mEq/L)
4th step -- match the abnormal result with the pH
5th step -- does the PaCO2 or HCO3- go in the opposite direction of the pH?
6th step -- is the pO2 and O2 saturation out of range
Food high in potassium -- help with Hypokalemia Avocados
Where do you Auscultate Tricuspid valve? 4th intercostal left sternal border
Where do you Auscultate Pulmonary valve? 2nd intercostal left sternal border
Where do you Auscultate the Aortic valve? 2nd intercostal right sternal border
What food is high in calcium? Brocoli
BUN (blood urea nitrogen) 10-20 mg/dL
Creatinine female 0.5-1.1 mg/dL males 0.6-1.2 mg/dL
Albumin (nutritional status) 3.5-5 g/dL < 3 g/100 mL bad
Glucose Fasting (no caloric intake for at least 8 hours) 70-110 mg/dL Casual (any time of day) < (or equal) 200 mg/dL
Created by: moo2youk