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What is meningitis? inflammation of the pia matter and arachnoid membrane surrounding the spinal cord and CSF
What causes meningitis? fungi, bacteria, virus, and parasites
What organisms cause meningitis? Strep pneumoniae (pnuemococci), Neisseria (menigiococci), Haemophilus influenza
Which organism is decreasing in meningitis and why? Haemophilus due to vaccine
How does the dz process of meningitis work? inflammation of meninges to thickened formed adhesions to hydrocephalus (ICCP and CSF production) Purulent sectretions produced quickly and spread to other areas of the brain via CSF
How is bacterial meningitis prevented? Through vaccines, (Pnuemococcal, H. Influenza, and MCV4/Menactra for Neisseria), treat URI, ATB prophylactic for family, drink pasteurized milk, monitor maternal infection during and before labor
What are S/S of meningitis? HA, stiff neck, N/V, rash on body, sensitivity to bright lights, drowsy/less responsive
What is a positive Brudinski's sign? In response to forward flexion movement of the head towards the chest, both hips and knees are flexed. The reflex is due to inflammation in the lumbar region.
What is a positive Kernig's sign? Flex one hip at 90° and then straighten the knee. Positive sign – straightening the leg cause severe stiffness in the hamstring and pain.
What are the possible complications from bacterial meningitis? Increased ICP causing unconsciousness, A few weeks of cranial nerve dysfunction involving CN II, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII, Hearing loss may be permanent, Hemiparesis, dysphasia, visual changes Seizures, DIC, Shock
What is the function of CN II Oprtic nerve, transmits visual signals from the retina of the eye to the brain
What is function of CN III? Occularmotor, perform most eye movements
What is the function of CN IV? Trochlear, Innervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, rotates laterally, and intorts the eyeball
What is the function of CN VI? Abducens, Innervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye
What is the function of CN VII? Facial, muscles of facial expression, and taste
What is the function of CN VIII? Acoustic, Senses sound, rotation, and gravity (essential for balance and movement). More specifically, the vestibular branch carries impulses for equilibrium and the cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing
What is the diagnostic done for meningitis? LP and CSF analysis
What is the CSF like when positive for meningitis? purulent, turbid, elevated protein, reduced BS, and presence of WBCs
Where should culture be taken if meningitis is suspected? blood, CSF, Nose, and sputum
What further tests should be done? Skull Xray to check for infected sinuses or skull fracture and head CT
What precautions should be taken if meningitis is suspected? standard and droplet
What med is used to relieve HA in meningitis pts? codiene
Created by: brebre273