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Parkinson's Disease

What neurotransmitters control movement? dopamine and aceytlcholine
Where does the decline in the dopamine-producing nuerons take place? substantia nigra
What are the different forms of PD? Primary parkisonism, secondary parkinsonism, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, psuedoparkinsonism, and juvenile parkinsonism
At what age can juvenile parkinson's disease take place? before age 40
What are the clinical manifestations of PD? "TRAP" Tremors, Rigidity, Akinesis (temp paralysis), Postural Insubility
What are other S/S of PD? drooling, macrographia, depression, fatigue, impaired postural reflexes
How do stage 2 and 3 differ? Stage two you are still able to walk, stage 3 in wheel chair
How is PD diagnosed? No specific test, R/O other medical conditions and H&P
What are the goals in terms of medical management? Slow the progression of the dz, maintain independence, preserve neurological functioning
How can PD be managed? medication and/or surgery
What type of med is Sinemet (carbiodapa/levadopa)? dopaminenergics
What do doaminergics do? Help the brain to produce more dompamine and in turn reduce bradykinesis, tremor, rigidity
What should be monitored when taking Sinemet? HR/BP, BUN, WBC, HCT, LOC
When are dopaminenergics contraindicated? In patients with glaucoma and avoid foods high in B6
What is Symmetrel? Dopamine agonist
How do dopamine agonist work? by blocking the reuptake into presynaptic receptors and hence relieves rigidity and akinesis
What should be monitored when taking Symmetrel? I/O/, Wt, LOC, nutrition, sleeping pattern, BP
What are examples of anticholerginic meds? Artane (trihexyphenidyl), Cogentin (Benztropine)
How do anticholoerginic meds work? They block the cholergenic receptors, facilitating a balance between dopamine and acytlcholine and in turn releiev tremors
What should be avoided when taking Atane and Cogentin? Other OTC meds that have the same effect such as Elavil, Sominex, Donnatal
What is an exampe of an antihistamine used in PD? Benedryl, relieves regidity
What are other meds used for PD? MOA, sleeping aids, COMT, Selective Seratonin Re-uptakes, other Anti-depressants,
What surgeries are available for PD? Ablation or destructive surgery (pallidotomy or Thalamotomy), Deep brain stimulation, Stem cell
What are some objective for managing a PD patient? maximize mobility, optimize nutrition and communication and prevent complications
What are some CAM options for PD? Tai Chi, music therapy, botanical alternatives (St. John's wart-depression, Ginger-N/V)
What causes PD? an imbalance between dopamine and actylcholine
What age is PD more common? Age 60 and older
Created by: brebre273