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AEMT Cardiac

Chapter 15 Cardiac Emergencies AEMT

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) a term used to describe a group of symptoms caused by myocardial ischemia; includes angina and myocardial infarction
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) Heart Attack; death of heart muscle following obstruction of blood flow to it. Acute in this contact means "new" or "happening right now"
afterload the resistance the heart must pump against, or the systemic vascular resistance
angina pectoris transient (short-lived) chest discomfort caused by partial or temporary blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle
aorta the main artery that receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood tot he tissues of the body
aortic aneurysm a weakness in the wall of the aorta that makes it susceptible to rupture
aortic arch one of three described portion of the aorta; the section of the aorta between the ascending and descending portion that gives rise to the right brachiocephalic (innominate), left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries
aortic valve the one-way valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta; keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after the left ventricle ejects its blood into the aorta and is one of four valves
arrhythmia an irregular or abnormal heart rhythm; also , absence of heart rhythm
arteries vessels of the circulatory system that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
arteriosclerosis the thickening of the sartorial walls that results in a loss of elasticity and concomitant reduction in blood flow
ascending aorta the first of three portions of the aorta; originates form the left ventricle and gives rise to two branches, the right and left main coronary arteries
asystole complete absence of heart electrical activity
atherosclerosis a disorder in which cholesterol and possibly calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, eventually leading to partial or complete blockage of blood flow
Atrioventicular (AV) node the site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction
Atrioventricular Valves the two valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
atrium one of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart
automaticity the ability of cardiac cells to generate an impulse to contract even when there is no external nervous stimulus
autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary functions, such as heart, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating
baroreceptors receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to change in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis
bradycardia slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min
capillaries microscopic, thin-walled blood vessels through which oxygen and nutrients and carbon dioxide and waste products are exchanged
cardiac arrest a state in which the heart fails to generate an effective and detectable blood flow; pulses are not palpable in cardiac arrest, even if muscular and electrical activity continues in the heart
cardiac cycle the repetitive pumping process that begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just before the beginning of the next contraction
Cardiogenic Shock a state in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissue of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart; can be a severe complication of large acute myocardial infarction, as well as other condition
chemoreceptors receptors in the blood vessels, kidney, brain and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis
chordae tendineae small muscular strands that attach the ventricles and the valves, preventing regurgitation of blood through the valves from the ventricles to the atria
chronotropic state related to the control of the heart's rate of contraction
circumflex coronary artery one of two branches of the left main coronary artery
conduction system a group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissues
conductivity the ability of the cardiac cells to conduct electrical impulses
congestive chest failure a disorder in which the heart loses part of its ability to effectively pump blood, usually as a result of damage to the heart muscle and usually resulting in a backup of fluid into the lungs
contractility the strength of heart muscle contraction
coronary arteries blood vessels that carry blood and nutrients to the heart muscle
coronary artery disease the condition that result when atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis is present in the arterial walls
coronary sinus the end of great cardiac vein that collects blood returning from the walls of the heart
cusps the flaps the comprise the heart valves
defibrillate to shock a fibrillating (chaotically beating) heart with specialized electrical current in an attempt to restore a normal rhythmic beat
dependent edema swelling in the part of the body closet to the ground, caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure
descending aorta one of the three portions of the aorta, it is the longest portion and extends through the thorax and abdomen into the pelvis
diastole the relaxation phase of the heart, when ventricles are filling with blood
dissecting aneurysm a condition in which the inner layers of an artery, such as a aorta, become separated, allowing blood (at high pressures) to flow between the layers
dromotropic state related to the control of the heart's electrical conduction
dysrhythmia an irregular or abnormal heart rhythm
ejection fraction the portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole
epicardium the layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; also called the visceral pericardium
excitability a property of cardiac cells that provides the cells with the ability ti respond to electrical impulses
fibrin a whitish, filamentous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen; the protein that bonds to form the fibrous component of a blood clot
heart a muscular, cone-shaped organ whose function is to pump blood throughout the body
hemoglobin an iron-containing protein within red blood cells that has the ability to combine with oxygen
hemostasis the body's natural blood-clotting mechanism
hypertensive emergency an emergency situation created by excessively high blood pressure, which can lead to serious complication such as stroke or aneurysm
inferior vena cava the principal vein draining blood from the lower portion of the body
inotropic state related to the strength of the heart;s contraction
interatrial septum a membrane that separates the right and left atria
interventricular septum a thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles
ischemia a lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow; potentially reversible because permanent injury has not yet occurred
left anterior descending Artery (LAD) one of the two branches of the left coronary artery, which is the largest and shortest of the myocardial blood vessels; this and the circumflex coronary arteries supply blood to the left ventricle and other areas
lumen the inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure
macrophage a cell that provides the body's first line of defense in the inflammatory response
mediastinum the area in the chest that lies between the lungs and contains the heart and great vessels and other structures
mitral valve the valve in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
myocardium heart muscle
occlusion blockage, usually of tubular structure such as a blood vessel
papillary muscles specialized muscles that attach the ventricles to the cusps of the valves by muscular strands called chordae tendineae cords
parasympathetic nervous system a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary, vegetative function, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine
pedal edema swelling of the feet and ankles caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure
perfusion the flow of blood through the body tissues and vessels
pericardial fluid a serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction
pericardial sac a thick fibrous membrane that surrounds the heart. also called the pericardium
plasma a sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion
platelets tiny, disk shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stop bleeding
preload the amount of blood returned to the heart to be pumped out; directly affects after load
pulmonary circulation the circulatory system in the body that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
pulmonic valve the semilunar valve that regulate blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
red blood cells (RBC's) cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes
semilunar valves the two valves, the aortic and pulmonic valves, that divide heart from aortic and pulmonary arteries
Sinoatrial (SA) node the normal site of the origin of electrical impulse; located high in the right atrium, it is the heat's natural pacemaker
Starling's Law a principle that states that if a muscle is stretched slightly before stimulation to contract, the muscle will contract harder; describes how increased venous return to the heart stretches the ventricles and allows for increased cardiac contractility.
stroke volume the amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects into the aorta in each contraction
superior vena cava the principal vein draining blood from the upper portion of the body
sympathetic nervous system the part of the autonomic nervous system that controls active function such as responding to fear
systemic circulation the circulatory system in the body that is responsible for blood flow in all areas of the body, except for areas covered by pulmonary circulation (blood flow from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart)
systole contraction of the ventricular mass with its concomitant pumping of blood into the systemic circulation
tachycardia rapid heart rhythm, more than 100 bpm
thrombin an enzyme that causes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which binds to the platelet plug, forming the final mature clot
thromboembolism a blood clot that has formed within a blood vessels and is floating within the bloodstream
tricuspid valve the heart valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle
tunica adventitia the outer layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall of elastic and fibrous connective tissue
tunica intima the smooth, thin, inner lining of a blood vessel
tunica medica the middle and thickest layer of tissue of a blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue demand
veins the blood vessels that transport unoxygenated blood back to the heart
Ventricular Fibrillation disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest
Ventricular Tachycardia rapid heart rhythm in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle, which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest
venule very small, thin-walled vessels
white blood cells blood cells that have a role in the body immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes
Created by: kelso571