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Prepare yourself for the homeostasis and cell transport of the Keystone Exam.

What is another name used for the cell membrane? plasma membrane
What is the term applied to the sheet-like structure that is composed of lipids and proteins? plasma membrane
What two macromolecules typically make-up the cell membrane? lipids proteins
How many lipid layers does the cell membrane contain? 2
What is meant by a lipid bilayer? Having 2 sheets of lipids making up a single layer
What functions do the proteins play in the cell membrane's phospholipid bilayer? receive messages transport molecules send messages
What macromolecules are continually moving within the phospholipid bilayer? proteins lipids
What does selectively permeable mean? Permits some molecules into and out of the cell and restricts other molecules from moving through the membrane.
The cell membrane is considered to be selectively permeable. What molecules can pass through the cell membrane due to its selective permeability? ions, glucose, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen
What are the five functions of the cell membrane? controls what enters and leaves the cell cell adhesion ion conductivity cell signaling serves as an attachment surface for other structures
What type of molecule movement across the cell membrane does not use energy? passive transport
What type of molecule movement across the cell membrane moves substances from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration? Passive transport
What term is applied to the movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water molecules across the plasma membrane using passive transport? Diffusion
What term is applied to the movement of water across a plasma membrane from an area of high to low concentration? Osmosis
What type of passive transport is the spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing with the help of proteins? Facilitated diffusion
Polar molecules and ions can not diffuse freely across the plasma membrane due to the plasma membrane being hydrophobic. What does this mean? The fatty acid tails of the interior of the plasma membrane are non-polar. Because this region is non-polar, polar molecules repel away from this area and are prevent from freely crossing the membrane.
Even though ions and polar molecules use transport proteins to move across a cell membrane, the way they move is still passive transport. What does this mean? No energy is used Move from high to low concentration
What are the two key characteristics of active transport? Uses energy Moves substances from low concentration to high concentrations
What form of energy does the cell use for all forms of active transport? ATP
What are three common forms of active transport? Sodium-potassium pump Exocytosis Endocytosis
What type of active transport moves three sodium ions out of the cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell? Sodium-potassium pump
What energy is used by the cell to move potassium ions into the cell? ATP
What energy is used by the cell to move sodium ions out of the cell? ATP
Why must energy be used to move potassium ions into the cell? Because the potassium ions are being moved from an area of low concentration to high concentration.
Why must energy be used to move sodium ions out of the cell? Because the sodium ions are being moved from an area of low concentration to high concentration.
What active transport process permits cells to absorb molecules by engulfing them? Endocytosis
What are the two types of endocytosis? Pinocytosis Phagocytosis
What active transport process removes undigested residues of substances brought in by endocytosis? exocytosis
What active transport process permits cells to secrete substances such as hormones and enzymes? exocytosis
What organelle is considered the transportation system within the cell? endoplasmic reticulum
What macromolecule does the endoplasmic reticulum tend to transport throughout the cell? protein
What structure moves proteins around the cell that are destined for locations outside of the endoplasmic reticulum? vesicles
What organelle structure helps move the vesicles through the cell? cytoskeleton
What happens to the vesicles that leave the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are transported to the Golgi apparatus? They bind with the Golgi apparatus and empty their contents.
What macromolecules does the Golgi complex tend to modify into new substances? Proteins and phospholipids
What structure aids the Golgi apparatus in transporting modified and packaged macromolecules around and out of the cell? vesicles
What are vesicles that contain digestive enzymes called? lysosome
What process maintains a stable internal environment despite external conditions? Homeostasis
What four structures in the human body maintain homeostasis? Organs Tissues Glands Cells
What is the internal body temperature of humans? 98.6F
What two ways do humans maintain internal body temperature? Behaviorally - clothing, sitting in shade, sitting around a fire Physiologically - Shivering, sweating
Why do organisms depend upon a constant fluid level to maintain homeostasis? Because gases, nutrients, ions, hormones and wastes are carried in body fluids
How do organisms lose water from their bodies? sweat and urine
Why is losing water bad for the body? When water is lost, dissolved solutes (typically waste products) become more concentrated and water is less concentrated
What structure do single-celled organisms depend upon to maintain homeostasis? cell membrane
Created by: carp115
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