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What is the normal pH of blood? 7.35-7.45
Anxiety and hyperventillation may cause respiratory _________? Alkalosis
COPD and heavy narcotic use may cause respiratory _________? Acidosis
Kayexalate is given for what electrolyte imbalance? Hyperkalemia
How does kayexalate work? It exchanges potassium ions for sodium ions.
What EKG changes are noted with hypo and hyperkalemia? Inverted T waves = hypo Elevated T waves = hyper
How does insulin correct hyperkalemia? Insulin drives potassium back into cells.
What do chlorides assist in making? HCL
Why is the Allen test performed? To assess ulnar circulation.
Infants have a higher percentage of this fluid, which is lost more rapidly. Extracellular
What is the #1 cause of hypernatremia? Edema
What is a major cause of hyperkalemia? Renal failure
Causes of fluid volume deficit. Vomiting/diarrhea,NG suction, colostomy, wounds, burns, fistulas, diuretics, bleeding
S/S FVD Thirst, poor tenting, dry muc membranes, flushed skin, increased HR, flat neck veins, decreased BP
Nursing interventions FVD VS, I&O, turgor, daily weight, hematocrit level, replace fluids
Causes of fluid volume excess Too much IVF, renal disease, CHF, cirrhosis, Cushing's, steroids
S/S FVE Distended neck veins, decreased hematocrit, confusion, moist rales, edema, increased BP
Nursing interventions FVE VS, fluid restriction, Na+ restriction, diuretics, monitor edema, daily weight
Causes hyponatremia Excessive perspiration, spacing, edema, vomiting, diarrhea, NG,diuretics, too much IVF, renal disease
S/S hyponatremia Headache, postural hypotension, muscle weakness, twitching, tremors, poor tenting, dry muc membranes, pyrexia
Causes hypernatremia Diarrhea, vomiting, burns, excess sodium, kayexalate
S/S hypernatremia Thirst, dry muc membranes, flushed, weakness, irritability, postural hypotension
Causes hypokalemia #1 diuretics, burns, diarrhea, vomiting
S/S hypokalemia Life threatening arrythmias, weakness, nausea, vomiting, diminished reflexes
Causes hyperkalemia #1 renal failure, excess intake, potassium sparing diuretics, burns
S/S hyperkalemia Elevated T waves on EKG,nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dysrhythmias, weakness
Causes hypocalcemia Loop diuretics,inadequate intake,lack Vit D, parathyroid dysfunction, caffeine
S/S hypocalcemia Osteoporosis, Paresthesia, cramps, twitching, dysrhythmias
Causes hypercalcemia Excess intake, bone destruction, immobility, renal failure, hyperparathyroidism
S/S hypercalcemia Thirst, polyuria, Increased HR, diminished DTR's, nausea, vomiting,slow GI, confusion, lethargy, renal stones
Created by: shocklori