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Pharm W12 BM

QuestionAnswer
Tx of Ulcer Reduce gastric acid secretion (antisecretory); Reduce gastric acid irritation on mucosal lining (antacid); Create a protective barrier; ABT
How can GERD be managed? Low stress, no spicy food, small portions, no alcohol, not laying down after meal,
What class of drug is most common/effective against GERD? Proton pump inhibitor, Omeprazole (prilosec)
How do proton pump inhibitor work? It decreases acid production
Why is a perforation in the GI tract dangerous? Bleeding and infection
What SS would you expect? little blood in stool, content from the GI coming out, low BP.
Natural causes of increase acid production stress
Factors that increase acid production (worsen heart burn) position, food, life style choices, stress, small portion
Over the counter antacids for occasional acute heart burn, less frequent.
Uses of antacids/side effect/containing what minerals? Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminum, Calcium; Sodium bad for HTN, SE, diarrhea for Mg, constipation for Na and Al
Which cause constipation? Sodium and Aluminum; Mg no constipation
Clients at high risk for diarrhea/constipation For diarrhea Younger, on ABT, Vomiting; for Constipation, elderly, over medicated, sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, stress, dehydration
Treatment for H Pylori Triple therapy, 2 ABT and a bismuth, because H Pylori is a bacterial infection
Natural barriers to regurgitation of gastric acids Gravity, saliva, sphincters, mucous lining
Why is opiate bad choice to treat diarrhea? It acts on the central nervous system can lead to constipation, they are narcotics. Effects are worse than diarrhea.
How can diarrhea be dangerous? Dehydration, alter fluid and electrolyte balance, should be reported after 2 days, hydration and I/O right away
How can constipation be dangerous? blocage
H2 Receptor antagonists tx duodenal ulcer and GERD, Reduce gastric acid secretion, Cimetidine, ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine, nizatidine
SE H2 receptor antagonists Can affect liver
What produces and secrete mucus? Prostaglandins
Prostaglandin inhibitors inhibit The mucus and cause ulcers
Used of proton pump inhibitor Acute of GERD, in combination with ABT for all ulcers
Proton Pump Inhibitors Mediate the exchange of potassium ions (K+) for hydrogen ions (H+) within parietal cells and reduce acid secretion
Proton pump inhibitors Omeprazole (prilosec)
What is H Pylori Bacteria that can cause ulcer.
Treatment for H Pylori Triple therapy, 2 ABT and a bismuth, because H Pylori is a bacterial infection
Proton pump inhibitor vs antacid PPI decrease production of acid, antacid neutralize acid already produced
Antacids Neutralize acid already produced by combining to it and make a salt
GI stimulants tx for GERD, promote emptying of stomach, stimulate peristalsis, selectively stimulate cholinergic receptors in GI
Metoclopramide/Reglan. Cisapride, never used GI stimulant, usually after surgery to prevent vomiting, SE diarrhea
Vomiting (Emesis) Mechanism Vomiting occurs by CNS stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) and vomiting center (VC)
Drugs that prevent vomiting Antiemetics, Phenergan is usually used with Narcotics to increase effects
Increase in intestinal motility produces Watery stool (diarrhea)
Decrease in intestinal motility produces Compacted stool difficult to expel (constipation)
Major causes of constipation Emotional stress and poor diet (w/o fiber)
What do Adsorbents do? Decrease diarrhea by binding irritating substances. Bismuth
What do Anticholinergics do? Inhibit parasympathetic nervous system, slow intestinal motility facilitate water absorption: atropine, belladonna, scopolamine
Most frequent adverse effect of antidiarrheal Constipation
Mechanism of Emollients Allow water to penetrate the fecal mass to help soften and lubricate. Mineral oil
Mechanism of Osmotic (saline) laxatives Contain sodium ions that attract water into the feces. Sodium phosphate salts, magnesium citrate, SEdehydration
Strongest laxative Osmotic
Mechanism of Stimulants laxatives Irritate the intestinal lining and promote histamine release increasing intestinal motility; bisacodyl, castor oil, senna preparations
Stool softeners Gentle, soften and moisturize stools. Docusate sodium, docusate calcium, docusate potassium (prevention)
Mechanism of Swelling agents Natural fibers or grains that soak up water and expand. Give the muscle something to grab on to push stool in the system. Bran, prunes, psyllium hydrophilic (prevention)
Best laxative class for prevention Stool softener and swelling agents
MOM Mg Antacid, Shake the bottle first, do not cause constipation, but BM, SE diarrhea.
Mineral oil Emollients, Allow water to penetrate the fecal mass
Senna, Castor oil, Bisacodyl Stimulants laxatives, irritate the intestinal lining and promote histamine release increasing intestinal motility
Docusate sodium Stool softeners, soften and moisturize stools
Bismuth For triple therapy, Adsorbent antidiarrheal, Antacid
Scopolamine Anticholinergics, Inhibit parasympathetic nervous system, prevention for motion sickness,
Lomotil (combo drug) Combination of Diphenoxylate, Atropine for Antidiarrheal
Dimenhydrinate and Meclizine Antihistamine, Treat or prevent nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness
Created by: fausfez