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Bio MD 15

Information from Apologia Exploring Creation with Biology (2nd) Module 15

Physiology The study of life processes in an organism
Plants Use Water For Photosynthesis, Turgor Pressure, Hydrolysis, and Transport (vast majority)
Nastic Movement A plant's response to a stimulus such that the direction of the response is preprogrammed and not dependent on the direction of the stimulus
Pore Spaces Spaces in the soil that determine how much water a plant can hold
Loam Mixture of gravel, sand, silt, clay, and organic matter
Cohesion-Tension Theory Transpiration causes water movement through evaporation from inside leaf
Cohesion Phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together even when they are exposed to tension
Translocation Process by which organic substances move through the phloem of a plant
Guidance of organic molecules Phloem exert energy to guide organic molecules
Hormones Chemicals that circulate throughout multicellular organisms, regulating cellular processes by interacting with specifically targeted substances
5 Groups of Plant Hormones Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic Acid, Ethylene (Florigen)
Auxins Regulate cell development and length of stems. Driving force in phototropism, gravitropism, and thigmatropism
Phototropism Growth response to light
Gravitropism Growth response to gravity
Thigmatropism Growth response to touch
Characteristics of Auxins Destroyed by light, affected by gravity, move away from touched substances
Etiolation Extreme phototropism. Plant placed in dark area, no auxins destroyed, has long, thin, crawling, light-colored stems
Gibberellin Promotes elongation of stems, affects mitosis, induce seed-germination
Cytokinins Affect mitosis, affect cellular differentiation, induce elongation of leaves, affect chlorophyll synthesis
Abscisic Acid Inhibit the abscission layer, control stomata
Ethylene Ripening of fruits, abscission layer to close
Florigen Suspected hormone group, cause abscission layer to close
Insecitvorous plants "Carnivorous plants," nastic movement of trapping, needs insects for raw materials for biosynthesis (b/c soil w/out)
One of most important raw materials Nitrogen
Grafting Stem cut from one plant is attached to another. Stem = scion. Host plant = stock. No exchange of genetic material
Parts of a Flower: Pedicel Stem that holds the flower
Parts of a Flower: Sepal Leaf-like under flower
Parts of a Flower: Petal Leaf-like above flower
Parts of a Flower: Stamen Male reproductive organ
Parts of a Flower: Carpel (Pistel) Female reproductive organ
Carpel composed of Stigma (sticky to catch pollen grains), style (holds stigma up), ovary (contains ovule w/embryo sac)
Perfect Flower Flower with both stamens and carpels
Imperfect Flower Flower with either stamens or carpels
Ways of not self-fertilizing Stamen&carpel mature @ different times. Chemical rejectors. Plants have either male or female flowers
Purpose of color and smell Attract insects/birds for pollination
Smell comes from Epidermis
Composite flowers have several individual flowers
Pollination The transfer of pollen grains form the anther to the carpel in flowering plants
To attract birds Flowers are red (with little smell)
To attract bees Fragrent flowers
To attract butterflies During the day, must be fragrant with wide landing
To attract moths During the night, must be fragrant and white
To attract beetles Foul-smelling flowers
Endosperm Extra genetic information, food source for seedling
Double Fertilizaiotn Fertilization that requires 2 sperm to fuse with 2 other cells
Cotyledon Absorb remaining endosperm for embryo or produce enzymes to help absorption
Testa Protectice coating over ovule
Seed An ovule with a protective coating encasing a mature plant embryo and nutrient source
Fruit A mature ovary that contains a seed or seeds
Simple Fruit Formed from a single ovary
Compound Fruit Formed from many ovaries
Aggregate Fruit (Type of Compound) many fruit from same flower
Multiple Fruit (Type of Compound) many fruit from different flowers
Fleshy Fruit (Type of Simple) fleshy tissue between seeds + ovary covering
Dry Fruit (Type of Simple) no fleshy tissue
Type of Fleshy Fruit: Pome Fleshy from (not ovary) tip of pedicel
Type of Fleshy Fruit: Drupe Ovary forms hard covering, then fleshy tissue
Type of Fleshy Fruit: Berry Ovary encases w/fleshy tissue
Type of Fleshy Fruit: Modified Berry Ovary w/thick, tough covering
Type of Dry Fruit: Pod Ovary w/single chamber of many seeds
Type of Dry Fruit: Capsule Many chambers, many seeds
Type of Dry Fruit: Nut Hard, woody covering around seed
Type of Dry Fruit: Grain Ovary wall connected to seed
Type of Dry Fruit: Achene Ovary separated from seed
3 Types of Seed Dispersal Samara (float w/wings), nuts/pods (carried by animals), Compound/fleshy (carried+eaten by animals)
To Turn On Embryo Development Absorb enough water, right temperature, right amount of oxygen
Germination: Radicle Lower portion of embryo sprouts and becomes roots
Germination: Hypocotyl Middle portion of embryo sprouts and becomes stem
Germination: Cotyledon Becomes seed leaves
Germination: Epicotyle Becomes first true leaves.
Germination: Plummule Epicotyle as still seed
Created by: Safire25509



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