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Digestion Review

Vocabulary for the digestive system

TermDefinition
Where teeth mechanically break down food and enzymes in saliva chemically break down food mouth
produces saliva that is used to moisten food and contains enzymes that turn sugar into starch salivary glands
epiglottis a flap of tissue that covers the windpipe when you swallow preventing food from entering
stomach stomach muscles churn food, mechanically breaking it down, while the enzyme pepsin chemically breaks down proteins
pancreas produces enzymes that are sent to the small intestine to break down starches, proteins, and fats.
liver produces bile that is sent to the gallbladder
gallbladder stores bile and releases it into the small intestine
small intestine where almost all chemical digestion occurs and absorption of nutrient molecules takes place
large intestine where water is absorbed into the blood stream and remaining material is readied for excretion out of the body
rectum short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid
enzyme proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
digestion the process by which food is broken down into small nutrient molecules that are used by the body for energy
absorption the process by which nutrient molecules are absorbed through the walls of the digestive system into the bloodstream
villi tiny finger-shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine through which nutrients are absorbed
peristalsis involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving down toward the stomach
Created by: jlodico