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QuestionAnswer
T or F: Nitric Oxide(NO) is a vasoconstrictor? FALSE. Vasoconstrictor
Explain the Hemoglobin-Nitric Oxide Partnership. -NO binds to cysteine amino acid on hemoglobin(acts like a buffer, protects it from degradation) -NO is released as oxygen is unloaded causing vasodialation
How is Carbon Dioxide transported? DONT CRY BITCH -Dissolved in plasma(7-10%) -Chemically binds to hemoglobin-20% is carried in RBCs carbaminohemoglobin -Bicorbonate ion in plasma(70%)
What is the Haldane Effect? The less Oxygen that binds to hemoglobin, the more Carbon dioxide can bind to hemoglobin.
What is the Bohr Effect? As more carbon dioxide enters the blood, the more Oxygen dissociates itself from Hb.
When you see of the word "dissociate" what are you supposed to think of? Unloading of Oxygen.
is Bicarbonate a Base or Acid? Base.
Is carbonic acid a Base or Acid? Acid.
Explain the Bicarbonate Buffer System. Strong Acid+Weak Base= Weak Acid Strong base+Weak acid=Weak Base
As Hydrogen levels increase in the blood, PH will _______ Acidity will increase, PH will decrease.
What is the normal PH of your blood? 7.35-7.45
If PH is under 7.35 then it is ______ Acidosis
If PH is over 7.45 then it is _______ Alkalosis
T or F: is your blood acidic at 7.3? FALSE. It is acidosis PAY ATTENTION TO WORDING Acid ---> Acidosis
What groups make up your Medullary Respiratory Centers? Dorsal Respiratory group(DRG) and Ventral respiratory group(VRG)
What does your Dorsal Respiratory group do? Gets input from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors.
What does your Ventral Respiratory group do? -Sets your EUPNEA(good breath) -12-15 Breaths per min -sets your normal breathing
What are your Respiratory Centers? Medullary(2 groups) and Pontine Respiratory Centers.
What does your Pontine Respiratory Center do? Smooths your breathing. Smooths the transition between inspiration and expiration.
DEPTH of respiration is determined by? HOW ACTIVE the stimulus to the muscles are.
the RATE of respiration is determined by? HOW LONG the "switch" is on. longer--->slower shorter-->faster
Depth and rate of breathing can be altered by: -Limbic System(out of your control ex:getting mad) -Body Temperature(increases respiratory rate) -Cortical Controls(Voluntary, holding in your breath)
Talk about the Limbic System. -When you get mad(out of your control) -overrides your autonomic system
What is Hering-Breuer Reflex? -Protective Reflex -Inhibitory signals end inhalation and allows expiration to occur
What is Hypercapnia? Too much Carbon dioxide CO2
T or F: When you breathe heavy, its to bring more oxygen out, and more carbon dioxide in. FALSE. When you breathe heavy, its to bring more oxygen in, and more cardon dioxide out.
What is Hyperventilation? -increased depth and rate of breathing -causes hypocapnia(decrease of CO2 levels) -exceeds body's need to remove CO2
What is Hypocapnia? Not enough Carbon dioxide CO2
Apnea is: period of breathing when CO2 is low.
Name the types of Respiratory Adjustments during exercise. PLEASE START EXERCISING 1.Psychological stimuli-anticipation of exercise 2.Simultaneous cortical motor activation. The largest. Actually activating your skeletal muscles. 3.Exictatory impulses reaching the respiratory centers from the muscles, tendons,
T or F: After exercise, your neural factors continue. FALSE. They shut off, and return to normal.
Acidosis may reflect: CATS ARE EVIL -Carbon dioxide retention -accumulation of lactic acid -excess fatty acids in patients with diabetes mellitus
Quick Travel above 8000 feet may produce: Acute Mountain Sickness
What are the Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness? Headaches, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness. In severe cases, lethal cerebral and pulmonary edema.
What is Acclimatization? Respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to high altitudes.
What adjustments does your body make during Acclimatization? 1) Increased ventilation- 2-3L higher then at sea level 2) Stimulates EPO (RBC production)
How long does it take for you to receive the benefits of high altitude training? 3-4 Weeks
T or F: training above 3000-4000 feet produces the best results for performance. FALSE. Living at high(8000), training in low(4000) gives best results.
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? -exemplified by CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and EMPHYSEMA -Irreversible decreasae in the ability to force air out of the lungs -history of 80% of patients were smokers -dyspnea: labored breathing -coughing and frequent pulmonary infections
What is Asthma? -Active INFLAMMATION and BRONCHOSPASMS(bronchioles constrict) -immune responce -airways thickened -1 in 10 people in N America
What is Tuberculosis? -caused by Myobacterium tuberculosis -racking cough -spitting up blood -treatment: 12 month course of antibiotics
What bacterium causes Tuberculosis? Myobacterium tuberculosis
3 different types of lung cancer are: Squamous cell Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Small Cell Carcinoma
Talk about Lung Cancer. -Leading cause of cancer deaths in N America -90% of cases are result of smoking -Lung cancer likes to spread
By the ___ week, a baby can prematurely breathe on its own. 28th week
Respiratory rate for newborns is how many breaths per minute? 40-80 respiration per minute.
Normal respiration rate per minute is _____per minute. 12-15 Breaths per minute.
T or F: Trachealis muscle expels mucus during coughing. TRUE
Speech is expired air while opening and closing the glottis
Pitch Length and Tension of vocal cords
Loudness Force of air through vocal cords.
The ______ Amplifies and Enhances sound quality. Pharynx.
T or F: Pharynx, Larynx, Sinuses, and Nose play a role in vocal production. FALSE. Only your Larynx.
Created by: lbreguez