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Ch. 12-Geology Pt. 2

Environmental Ecology- Geology & Non-Renewable Resources

Minerals Naturally occurring material on/in the Earth's surface with an internal crystalline structure.
Metallic Minerals Examples include Al, Fe (iron), Au (gold), Ag (silver)
Non-Metallic Minerals Examples include sand, gravel
Single Element Mineral Au (gold), Ag (silver)
Several Elements Minerals Salt (NaCl), Quartz (silicon dioxide) SiO2
Rock Made up of one or more minerals that is part of the Earth's crust
Single Mineral Rock Composite Example: Limestone (calcium carbonate)- CaCO3
Several Mineral Rock Composite Example: Granite (mixture of mica, feldspar, and quartz)
Ore Rock that contains metal
Rock Formation 1. Igneous Rock 2. Sedimentary Rock 3. Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rock Either on/inside Earth's crust formed from magma/lava Ex: Granite
Sedimentary Rock Rock that forms in layers from dead plants and animals over time Ex. Sandstone, limestone, shale
Metamorphic Rock Pre-existing rock that is reshaped internally from high temperature and pressures. Ex. Slate, Marble
Rock Cycle Is the slowest of all cycles and considered the most important: 1. Concentrates non-renewable resources. (Releases minerals to food chain) 2. Continuance of life on planet.
Get Coal: Mining of Mineral Deposits
Surface Mining 1. Open-Pit: Big Hole 2. Area Strip Mining: Flat Surface 3. Contour Strip Mining- Leaves some vegetation, occurs on hills/mountain sides
Sub-Surface Mining 1. More environmentally sound. 2. Uses about 10% less land. 3. Generates less mining waste.
Environmental Effects of Mining 1. Scarring/destruction of land 2. Potential for land collapse (subsidence) 3. Pollution of land/water 4. Toxic mining waste 5. Toxic air emissions 6. Tailings
Subsidence Potential for land collapse
75% ...of all US solid waste is generated by mining.
Sulfuric Acid FeS (Iron Sulfide) when digging reacts with aerobic bacteria + H2O = H2SO4- Runs off into stream
Tailings Metallic ore waste.
Created by: ginganinjaem